Diary of HWP Smith of Olrig Station 1858-1871


1836 – 1878

WRITTEN 1858 – 1871

Transcribed by R.J. Paterson

Also Epilogue written by his son, James and other early accounts

(ii) Foreword

I have since 1954 known that the Diary of H.W.P. Smith is the most important heirloom of his descendants. It was written between the years 1858 and 1871, and is a fascinating account of three journeys from England to New Zealand and two return ones; some time in Scotland, including the family home at Olrig, near Thurso in Caithness; and accounts of his run, “Olrig”, then known as “Aorangi”, near Hastings, in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand.

The Diary would have been with H.W.P.S. all this time, and made all these trips. Later in the care of his eldest son, James, it could have been out again; but was certainly returned to New Zealand during World War 2, sent by James to his brother Hector in 1940. James feared the destruction of this valuable book, in air raids by the Germans. Uncle Hector lived at “Ormlie” near Napier, and he handed the book to his nephew C.E.N.S. about 1950, who in turn handed it to his nephew John Renton, at Glenmore Station, who has in turn passed it back for this work at Olrig Station. It has thus been back on some part of the run of H.W.P.S. for the past 40 years.

The book itself was probably once a school notebook, as there are some Algebraical equations and Geometrical drawings on a few pages. It consists of some 200 leaves size 8″ x 5″, with a hard cover. The last 50 leaves were cut out, with their previous writing, and new leaves glued on the butts, firstly with a thin blue paper, and the final leaves with Elgin House writing paper, size 4″ x 7″. H.W.P.S. turned the book around and upside down, so that the replaced pages which were the start, became the end. Some pages not to do with the story of events, are written upside down compared to the rest.

The first 70 pages are his notes written before leaving Scotland. He has obtained this information from other works, on the Land he would arrive to in New Zealand, on farming, crops and livestock. I have not included this part, which as well has some pages with mileages sailed on board ship, a page with painted flags, and a Health Guide.

There are two numberings of the pages. I have used the one started by H.W.P.S. to page 70, and continued after that by C.E.N.S. about 1970, when he was making a Photographic Copy of the first half of the text, the other is in reverse order.

R.J.Paterson, Olrig Homestead, R.D.1, Hastings.
15th. November 1989.


I wish to thank the following for their help :

John Renton for making the Diary available to me for this work. Jennifer Paxman for sending the Epilogue and other material from Scotland.

Mr. & Mrs. D. Sherning for material on the Duff family, and Whakarara, Kereru.

and my Wife, Janet, for help with interpretation of the Diary.




Journal of events beginning 3 months prior to the date of my departure from England to New Zealand being on the 31st May 1858.

Preface –

(Said Journal being written in the most original style possible will not bear criticism  — ++++)

It was on the 14th day of March 1858 that I finally determined going to New Zealand. Prior to this, I had a great desire to Settle in Ceylon: but with friends making a host of objections – unhealthy climate, prevalance [prevalence] of Liver complaints &c Country swarming with poisonous reptiles &c. &c. my resolution was almost shaken. Not quite tho’, as I even then just consented to delay my departure for one month. And it was lucky I did so as at the expiration

74.   Unsettled Destination –

of that time, That fearful Indian Mutiny had broken out which had horrors of the most terrific description. the whole account being almost without parallel in history. This event conjoined with my elders’ advice settled the question whether I was or was not to go to Ceylon – Now I had to set my thoughts again to work to find some other field for my latent talents as I flattered myself with having – I may say I thought of places without number but could decide on going to none. so that my codgetations [cogitations] troubled me and I once more resorted to field sports &c. After months had gone I tired of these also – felt like a wandering bird that had not a place to rest! these thoughts particularly haunted me when

75.   “Hursthouse’s New Zealand”.

looking back to my College days. I found that almost all my then companions had left classes. & were now fighting the great battle of life; either at home or abroad in civil or military life. At length when the cold & surly blasts of Winter were coming on and wintery nights were long and frosty – I did betake myself to reading late library works (Edmonston & Douglass…)

E: amongst the Library books I found a work on New Zealand entitled “Hursthouse’s New Zealand”. or the “Britain of the South”: this work made New Zealand a sort of Paradise. & men with little Capital to acquire independancy with almost their hands in their pockets ……. of course I at once saw the attempt at cram here & ordered another work on N.Z. so as to compare notes and strike a balance –

76.   Destination fixed –

Accordingly I obtained a copy of “Cpt. [Captain] Cooper’s New Zealand Guide” which having read & pondered, contrasted with the other work and struck a balance in favour of going to New Zealand – My next care was to select a ship fitted for the long passage out there; as I understood of about 90 days – but as experience told was 125 days – much longer that I expected – & had I known then I would have been so long on the way, I would have taken my friends advice (they reluctantly consented to my making N.Z. my (destination) and gone by the “Overland Route” to Sydney & from thence to Auckland – the Province I then thought of settling in & had I done so I would have saved myself no end of inconvenience

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both in waiting for the ship to sail, as well as numerous annoyances and nuisances on board – these I will relate presently as they may be of

77.   Communications with the Ship’s Brokers

some use to bear in recollection to warn some emigrant, of some of the troubles he may expect on ship board – Well I decided on going on one of Willis, Garm & Co ships (Hursthouse’s crack line) Little did I suspect then that he was paid by them for inserting his praises of the line. However being ignorant of this at the time I wrote to the “Head Office of the Company in Willis Street, to ascertain the correct time of the ship’s departure which was advertised to sail on 5th April —- In due course I received a letter from Willis & Co to say that their first packet for New Zealand would sail on the 10th & shortly after was followed by another document delaying her sailing till the 20th and yet another epistle followed further delaying her departure for another five days —- the 25th.

78.   Arrive at Hastings –

I now began to feel rather annoyed at these delays and determined to leave for London so as to get if possible more definite information than these Jockeys could give by letter – However just as I was leaving Caithness for the Metropolis, I had another letter from them stating that the “Mary Ann” was finally to leave on the 30th April! This was too much of a good thing – I left Olrig in the end of March & arrived in Hastings on the 9th April – I communicated with the brokers once more – but found that even now they had not “finally decided” when the ship would sail – My patience was now pretty well exhausted – I determined to take no notice of their letters but make myself at home for a month or so in my new quarters Which I certainly did, passing many happy days riding & driving about with my friends who had come up to “see me

79.   I inspect the Ship –

off” – what with enjoying the fresh air of fashionable Hastings. & staying with my brother who was not then in good health. I got rather reconciled to the delay paying little attention to the numerous epistles I got from the berokers [brokers] all ways delaying the vessels departure by regular intervals of five days – At length a letter arrived one morning purporting to be more business like than any of the others in as much as it contained a printed announcement of the ship’s departure on 29th May. This of course required some attention on my part. So I then took a trip to London to see the ship which I was informed lay in St. Katherine’s dock – But before proceeding further I would impress readers (tho’ I intend no one but myself to read this)

80.   Precautions recommended –

with the necessity of having a definite time fixed with the brokers for the departure of their vessel under a penalty – say the paying of a fixed rate for keeping passengers beyond the time they fix for the ships departure. Brokers have a habit of delaying the ship’s first date of sailing for the purpose of getting more passengers, in the event of them not then being full which was the case in this instance as I found out afterwards Willis & Co having no intention that their ship should sail for a

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month after they first told me she would sail. said Ship being then on the slip at Bristol getting repaired !! I should never recommend any passenger to emigrate in any of that Company ships. I believe Shaw Saville & Co’s line of packets give the greatest

81.   The Departure –

satisfaction to passengers – & should therefore recommend it – Having got my outfit on board & some little fittings done in my cabin I prepared for the – Departure – I went on board “Mary Ann” on the 29th of May 1858, not again to come off for many a long day – the 29th September 4 months! The Mary Ann was a full rigged ship of about 800 tons burden, & belonged to Mr. Green of Bristol – She was commanded by an agreeable and experienced Captain. Indeed Captain William Ashby treated his passengers with the greatest kindness & consideration always studying their comfort & safty [safety] – which was sufficiently shown by the testimonial & present of a gold watch from the passengers on board – It was on a Saturday we embarked at Gravesend & on Sunday 30th Divine Service

* The White Star Line is now on the New Zealand Berth – Of course they are all first class ships. They sail punctual to adv: time, & are sure to give satisfaction to their passengers – 1864 –

82.   First Sunday on board –

was held on the main deck, which service was particularly impressive, both by reason of time and situation particularly so when I cast my eyes around & saw the brown & weather beaten faces of the sailors all collected in one solemn assembly their heads uncovered – the ship’s colors decking the pulpit or capstan & the bell tolling solemn notes – as it only can do at sea – this indeed appeared to me to be very solemn, especially when I thought of this being the last service I was to hear within hail of my native Land for many a long year – It was a glorious Sabbath Day – I shall long remember it – the sun pouring down his cheering beams as if blessing our proceedings. No sound disturbed the Minister’s voice rising clear & solemn – save the light rippling of the waters which was so very low & soft

83.   A Steam tug takes to the Nore – The Departure!

as rather to add to the solemnity of the occasion – Hark! the voice of praise is raised & all voices unite in singing the Praises of their Redeemer – Yet I fear there are some whose hearts did not follow their voices to the throne of God – yea ! I fear their hearts were wandering to the distant land they were going to & that their eyes followed the yatchts [yachts] of some barbarians who were profaining the Lord’s day, and plying to & fro on Old Father Thames.

The day following (Monday) 31st was also fine, – clear & bright, with scarce a breath of wind, the sails lay lazily on the masts. At quarter to three in the afternoon of the 31st May 1858, the anchor was raised not again to be let go in the North Hemisphere. A steam tug took us down as far as the “Nore” light ship. But before

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84.   Packages &c. &c. –

proceeding further let me here introduce the reader (that’s myself) both to the main & “tween decks – & the general confusion of “getting things to rights” – A scene which almost always occurs on all emigrant vessels when they have just “dropped down to Gravesend” —– There are boxes, bundles & packs of bedding, hampers, baskets & portmanteaux: crates of goods, carts and barrow pieces & agricultural tools & implements. Here are piles of cabbages, strings of onions & ponderous bunches of turnips and carrots, trusses of hay, ditto of straw, barrels of flour, bags of peas, bags of barley & associate sacks of potatoes. With all these are roods of tarpaulings, countless piles of rope & cable, heavy iron chains, handspikes, mops, hollystones, jars, pots, pans & iron kettles. Then there are boats filled with live stock: pigs struck dumb with astonishment

85.   described –

and incapable of a grunt! Sheep in a state of perplexed bewilderment and open mouthed silence. There are hen coops crowded with draggled-tailed fowls in the last state of wretchedness, but clucking, scratching, quacking, crowing and making a fuss about it, in a way the more drearily comical that nobody takes the slightest notice of their troubles. The poor bipeds have not been fed today and they poke their long necks through the rails, pecking savagely at everything with skeary faces & fiery eyes: they are died in mire, and their feathers stick to their bodies like a hydropath’s wet sheet, and altogether they look so forlorn that the best thing we can wish them is a speedy promotion to the spit which will come in good time. Then turn your eyes aloft and see what is hanging in the rigging: whole carcases of fat sheep, monster

86.   Description ended –

quarters of bullocks just slaughtered, and halves of country Pork. All this provision of fresh meat, fowls, & vegetables being meant to defer the inevitable diatory of salt junk, potted meats, & biscuits to the last practable moment – I think this description is very fair & well worth giving – One more nuisance has to be added: that is the quacking of ducks, which wakens you every morning about 4 o’c. they vociferously clamer for water or somthing or another in regular chorus, in which the cocks join by crowing loudly, but this only lasts for a month or so, as long as the vocalists last. – Yet one more nuisance to be mentioned & I have done the last but not the least. the greatest of all as it lasts all thro’ the voyage – namely the incessant yelling – roaring

87.   – With a caution

screeching continued with every other horrifying noise you can think of, made by about 13 noisy ill-bread, [ill-bred] & ill behaved children – & now let me particularly bear in mind (& I shall never forget it, I know) if I or any one I should know intend going on a long voyage let him not go on a ship with ill-bred children on board. I shall never forget the great annoyance I had from them & many is the time I wished they were unable to move from sea-sickness, but no sickness was near them I’m sorry

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to say – The whole thirteen would go running, chasing, yelling & screaming, dragging carts, stools & chairs all round the deck, from the binnacle lamp to the lower skylight. Fancy being plagued this way for 125 long days ! when I went to my cabin I had no rest either, the noise was overhead even worse. (Choose a Cabin on second deck, the noise of children, fowls &c is hardly heard there. – 1864)

88.   Last sight of land –

Time generally reconciles us to what we cannot better or mend, but to this noise I was never reconciled, and could hardly believe my good luck when I got on shore – But to return, We had two pilots on board, the one left us at Deal & the other at Dungeness, by both of these messengers we had opportunities of communicating with our friends on shore – On the 3rd. June we were off the Isle of Wight and could distinctly see Osbourne thru’ our telescopes, which most of us took care to have provided before leaving – On the 4th. saw the ships in Weymouth roads – and also a very small part of the buildings. On the 5th. off Dartmouth with the wind contrary – On the 6th. great excitement – last sight of land – said land being the Scilly Islands –

89.   Our first Storm –

June 1858
On the 11th. – 44° N.L., off Cape Finnisterre & on the 14th. 42° N.L. off Oporto with sea running high & ship labouring under double reefed topsails – And now the passengers begin to wear rueful looks – the dinner table all but deserted a few who still “hold out” take their seat there with seeming indecision: & these thinking that although not able to weather the storm “up above”, could at least weather the dinner: Great mistake! as the event proved by said individuals rising “post haste” leave – all – and returning on deck. Off Trafalgar 38° N.L. 16 W.L. on the 16th. “dead calm”‘ sails flapping lazily against the masts. Many of us contrasting “our calm” with Nelson’s storm of the 21st October 1805. A memorable and glorious day indeed. Only saddned by the hero receiving his death wound on the good ship “Victory” – Here we signalled a vessel, which operation

90.   “Vessel in Sight”.

created a little diversion, being the first we signalled since leaving England. The stranger proved to be a Portugese bark bound for Lisbon – passed very close to us, almost too close, we saw the crew &c – very distinctly, all were “copper color”. The Cpt. could not speak English. On the 18th. 36° we were again becalmed – the boats were lowered & a short pleasure trip was enjoyed.

On the 20th. 34° Off Madeira Islands. I believe the coast is very rugged & bear, the interior however forming a stricking [striking] contrast, abounding with little villiages, and neat houses situated in the deep finely wooded ravines. On the 22nd. 29° N.L. 19° W.L. passed Teneriffe, but we, keeping far out to sea – “150 miles to the West’rd” as the Cp’t. told us, could not get a peep of its majestic peak towring high in the clouds – On the 24th. we crossed the tropic of Cancer, there experiencing fine weather, rather warm – the Ther : being 74° in shade –

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91.   Warm Weather –

On 28th. passed the Cape de verde islands steering 100 miles to the West – Weather getting too warm to be pleasant – the nights too were oppressively close & one felt much inclined to sleep on deck instead of in Cabin. Indeed one of our passengers made a constant habit of it. altho’ I believe he experienced no good from it – rather the contrary – I should recommend no one to do such a foolish thing – Light clothing was the order of the day having now come near the Equator. How truly beautiful were the Sunsets there! I gazed at them in rapture & thought of the Divine hand that made them and all the beauties of nature. I thought of “Nature & Nature’s God”. Indeed I cannot describe all the beauties attending a Sunset in the Tropics – The beautiful mellowed lustre on the sky immediately after the departure of the great luminary from our earth, or the beautiful

92.   Trade Winds –

shapes the clouds then assume – like Castles – Mountains – promontaries – bays – towns &c. On the 24th. caught a flying fish – one coming on board – At night a heavy dew falls on deck in these latitudes making it extremely dangerous to sleep thereon. And some of the sailors are well aware of this, as one of them told me that numbers of seamen sleep on deck in these latitudes, and as he said, in consequence came to an early grave – And now we have got into the “trade winds”. these blow from N.E. on the N. of the Equator & from S.E. on the S. of it. It is really wonderful how steadily these winds blow, which we on board fully appreciated by the steady pleasant motion of the vessel, which seemed to act as a sort of finisher to the troubles of the sea-sick party,

93.   – Sporting –

as rueful looks began to dissappear and people talked of being able to indulge in amusements – Guns – pistols – Revolvers – Colt, & Dean & Adams, was now the order of the day – and for a few days there was nothing but bang. bang. bang – which altho’ unpleasant, was certainly a great relief from the incessant screech, scream & yell of the young noisy bipeds. As yet no birds had appeared to give us any sport. (“Us” I said, however I did not take out my gun or revolver from their respective cases, save to examine, sea-air being so destructive to fire arms) – Yet the Sports-men werenothing daunted not seeing birds to fire at, as they procured & Old flour barrel rigged it up, putting a sail to one end – ballast in the other, and a rope around it – the whole lowered over the stern – to the tender mercies of the Lovers of sport !

94.   Writing Home –

This lasted for a few days, & I believe the Captain tiring of the din told them to reserve their powder & shot for albatrosses & Cape pigeons which he (the Cpt.) expected shortly to be in the neighbourhood of. Guns &c. were therefore replaced. But the Captain, bless him, altho’ depriving the hopefuls of one source of amusement & employment, seemed to forsee that idleness would beg mischief, told said hopefuls to write their letters as a homewood-bound ship was shortly expected, to heave in sight –

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This news created quite a rush from the deck to the Cabin, & made letter-writing the order of the day. This kept us occupied for a few days, & at length all the letters were ready “cut & dry” – now for the ship. Several did heave in sight but all passed – none wishing

95.   Crossing the Line –

to be delayed this disappointed us much – At length on 9th. July, as we approached the Equatorial line a large ship hove in sight “Straight ahead”. We signalled her, but no corresponding color was hoisted to indicate that our signal was observed. On, on, she came, no appearance of having seen us with all sail spread “stun’cils” on each side. And now she is abreast, with no intention of shortening sail! we now begin to despair of getting our letters home. however, our Captain was not to be “done” this time. At length the vessel dropped a-stern of us and I, with others looked with blank amusement at the Cpt. At the same inst: he called in a loud voice “tacks and sheets”, then “mainsail haul” – and round went our ship. Our uncivil neighbor

96.   Despatching the Mail –

now saw it was no use trying to pass us as he put down helm and brought his ship to the wind: we now lowered a boat and despatched the chief officer with the “mail-bag”, said bag being made of canvass: on which was written name of ship – date – lat: & long: When the Chief Officer returned he said the ship was from Rangoon with rice bound for Cork – he also added that “Skipper of said Ship could not see our colors”.

July 9th.
crossed the Line in 23½ W. Long. Ther. 104° on deck: 96° in Cabin. Very little “tarring – & feathering” done. Sailors marched round the deck once or twice with “Neptune” at their head, accompanied with song. We now got into what sailors call the Doldrums likened by them to Paddy’s hurricane, the wind up and down the mast – The nights were very fine indeed & no little amount of resolution

97.   Squall in the tropics

was required to resist the full enjoyment of them & sleeping on deck. Indeed one night I gave way staying upon deck till about 1 o’clock. I was gazing at the stars and sky when suddenly I saw a flash of lightning – another, and another followed: then a black cloud suddenly formed which was spreading rapidly. I could hear by the sound on deck that the Officer on watch had also perceived the appearance of a storm and reduced the sail on the ship to about half what it had been before the lightening flashed – Still he was taking in sail – then a shout. “Stand by the top – gallant – haulyards” “Helm – hard up” – The ship was no sooner before the wind than one of those terrific squalls (peculiar to the tropics) struck her which is so very

98.   Crossing the line

dangerous to vessels light in the water as ours was. The ship was nearly laid on her beam ends – and as the sailors told me afterwards, if she had not been at the time running before the wind – “the masts would have been torn out of her”, and even as

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it was they cracked and bent in a way most alarming. Some of the sailors who were aloft at the time said they made sure that both themselves and the mast would go overboard. At length the ship righted – Then a noise well known to sea-men both startled and astonished me! the main-topsail had gone, blown to ribbands, making a noise like thunder. At length it was furled with difficulty. What a dismal night it was now – such a contrast,

99.   A Squall –

rain poured in torrents. I never saw rain descend as it did now. Lightening seemed to flash from all parts of the sky – lighting up the whole ship – thunder resembling thousands of Artillery going off at once – I certainly never saw lightening so bright or heard thunder so loud as here, as both sea & sky were alike illuminated by the flash – In a few hours everything was perfectly still again, and things were nearly as they were before, saving the sail blown away – and the smash in the “Steward’s pantry”. passengers too might be seen to emerge in great dishabille from their cabins, anxiously enquiring if anything “serious” had happened. Next day we saw great quantities of fish – chiefly Bonitoes – dolphins – flying fish, hooks baited with pieces of

100.   Fish – catching &c.

white and scarlet bunting were hurriedly dressed, and kept perseveringly bobing up and down attached to a line fastened to the jib-boom and by this means several Bonitos were caught – They are a very dry fish & somewhat resemble mackeril. Porpoises in great quantities were also seen – some coming quite close to the ship – the sporting gents were again to be seen “gun in hand” and blazing away – with harmless effect I believe – These fish are frequently caught with the harpoon – Some sharks were caught & cooked, and partakers of the said rare dish, reported the flesh to be good! 3° S. of the Equator – We were now going along very smoothly having got into the S.E. trades. The North Star was now no longer to be seen, proving

101.   Birds are seen –

that we were now in the southern hemisphere –

The Cpt. pointed out to me the “Southern cross” and the Magillian [Magellan] Clouds close to it, “which are to the southern hemisphere what the polar star is to the Northern. This was now the 8th. of July – little of any note occurred until about the end of the month when we were in 36° S.L., [South Latitude] when the Albatrosses – cape pigeons appeared. Guns were now in great demand and some few pigeons found a lost resting place on their stormy element – There were alas two large Albatrosses caught by hook and line, with pork bait. One of these birds measured 14 ft. 8 inches from tip to tip of wing – We tied a piece of parchment round his neck lettered with ship’s name, position, date &c. and cast him adrift

102.   Sighted “Tristan D’Acunha” –

2d. [2nd] Aug: sighted land which proved to be the Island of Tristan D’Acunha with its lofty snow capped peak 326 ft. in height – its position is S. Lat. 37° 6′ 9″ – W. Long. 12° 3′ – This island is

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spoken well of. it abounds with goats &c – vegetables grow well also, such as potatoes, celery, carrots. There are only eleven people on the island – A Scotsman, his wife, and family Whaling vessels often frequent it, and sometimes Merchant vessels call there for water – which is furnished in a somewhat peculiar way – Barrels are lowered from the ship’s side and float ashore. On arrival they filled and floated back! this of course is owing to the peculiar action of the tide – This Island can be seen at a distance of 10 miles –

103.   Good Sailing –

Having plenty fresh provisions & no lack of water, we did not call in here – And it was well we did not as it came on to blow very hard shortly after: At 6 o’clock topsails were reefed. we also lost our mizen top mast that night – On the 4th. we had a good breeze and the good ship made no less than 318 miles! by observation – not by log line measurement which is often incorrect – This was indeed good sailing – upwards of 13 miles an hour – I believe if we had fair winds, instead of one series of baffling contrary winds, we should have made perhaps the fastest voyage to New Zealand that had been made. A dreary miserable morning was that of Sunday the 9th, August 1858. About 8 o’clock on Saturday night

104.   A gale –

the sky looked cold and stormy with every indication of a strong “Sou’Wester”. we were then in 43° S.L. (off the Cape). “Just the place for a gale”, as the Cptain told me. At 8 o’clock, the “watch was called”, and all hands were set to reef topsails. As the night advanced the gale increased. Sail after sail was taken in till nothing remained but the Main-tray-sail (A storm sail which keeps the vessel’s head to wind). I shall never forget the sorry plight I found myself in that night – Shutters or “dead lights” are fastened securely on the appearance of a storm – It seems I neglected to have mine securely fastened. In fact not a doubt of this was left in my mind after the storm began as

105.   I catch the damp –

bed and bedclothes were alike drenched in “two-twos” – I managed to dress with the utmost difficulty – having to “hold on” every moment – and went on deck – But I can not rightly describe the sight up there – how at one time the ship seemed lifted right into the clouds – leaving a fearful chasm beneath – then we descend suddenly, so suddenly that you feel giddy with oppression in the ears – I cannot finish the sentence or tell how far we seemed to descend – I often thought that in some of our descents we should never come up and that both we and the ship should be buried beneath the stormy waters of the great deep – At such times as these the proud feels himself humbled, & the lofty brought low –

106.   Reflections on the Storm –

The profane sailor – or the proflegate passenger – or the man who puts trust in his own powers – combined with oaths is now seen on his knees if not in the bodily position, his heart is so – prostrated before his Maker – Yea – he then tries to call to remembrance some portions of Scripture learned in his younger

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days – when the heart was green and tender, not as now, scared and hard – yea he calls – but has not the sweet assurance of being answered or even heard – With the man that looks upward & feels that he is walking & striving to run a good race & fight a good fight it is very different, he feels at ease at all times. even in the midst of the greatest troubles whether by sea or on land – he has the assurance of his Maker – ” When he calls on me I will answer him” It is a sweet description the Psalmist.

107.   Storm Continues –

gives of a storm :- “The sea roared and the stormy wind lifted up the waves thereof – We were carried up as it were to heaven, and then down again to the deep, our Souls melted within us, because of trouble – – – – I felt the night very very long. I could no longer lay in bed or even think of sleep – so with difficulty I arranged a “shakedown” on the Cabin floor – this was after my being thrown violently from my roost! Morning came at last and a dreary one it was – Water poured occasionally in beautiful “seas” in to the Saloon – Plates cups – dishes of all descriptions – were shattered unmercifully. Victuals fared no better. Those who persevered “most manfully”! to feed the inner man had to hold the plate in one hand & the handle of a door or some such thing in the other! Yet with all my little miseries I could not reasonably complain

108.   Off Australia –

being almost wholly exempt from sea-sickness during the voyage. This gale inconvenienced us very much – we were driven many degrees out of our course: and worse than all in to a latitude of calms – being nearly within 90 miles of the Cape of Good Hope. said vexatious calms lasting nearly a week – 19th. August. Off Kergulen’s [Kerguelen’s] Land – cold latitudes now 52° South – Climate altered – cold – cold – cold – hail – snow – ice. Sailors pelting themselves with snowballs – rigging frozen &c * * * *

On 7 September. Off Australia. Heavy weather – Shipping whole tons of water – Ship first running under reefed main-sail – latterly under close reefed main top-sail. Cape pigeons & Albatross still follow, but the Ice birds have long since bid us “good-bye” – On the 13th. the Captain declared he saw the “loom of the land” (van Demons-land [van Diemen’s Land]). We could not see it however – did not care either, not being New Zealand – Calm day – 16th. Fair wind – with much betting amongst the notaries of delusions as to the probable time of arrival – 12 dozen pair of gloves in one instance – the best hat Auckland

109.   Enter Auckland harbour –

could produce in another & so on –

17th. September – New Zealand birds appear! – Weather beautiful – 20th. Heavy thunderstorm worse than in the tropics – accompanied with rain drops like tubs-ful – duration of thunderstorm 30 hours ! –

22d. Rainy & muggy at 12 o’clock the joyful intelligence that land was in sight soon spread – then every soul on board might be seen crowding the side of the vessel eager “to get the first glimpse of land” and were now 106 days from “land to land” by the Captain’s reckoning – not the way of the passenger tho’ –

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From Port to Port he reckons. The 23d. broke clear & bright with the Coast line distinctly visible on our Starboard bow – The “Three Kings” attracted every ones attention as they rose bold & picturesque like the “Woody Morven” of Assian. The “poor Knights” also look very well – they resemble the Bass rock in the Firth of Forth: they rise 1200 ft. high.
24th. September 1858. We enter the fine & picturesque harbor of Auckland –

110.   Come to Anchor –

It is almost entirely land locked and could be strongly fortifyed at trifling expense – Not withstanding the rain that fell, almost every soul was up on deck, some manifesting their delight at seeing their long journey on the eve of termination by uttering most wonderful exclamations of delight at seeing some objects on land that seemed to put them in mind of the land that they had left far far behind them perhaps never again to see:- “Look here! there are Cattle”. “Oh ! there are “sheep” and “I declare there are red blossoms on that tree, the first we’ve seen since leaving bonnie Scotland” – We soon after came to Anchor – with all hands eager for the Shore. But before proceeding farther I will relate a rather ludicrous (to me at least) scene that occurred to the passengers of the first “shore-boat” A warning not to debark in an overcrowded boat – The most distinguished! parties were the Captain, The Ship’s Surgeon – A Lame

111.   The “M.D. debarks –

Irish lawyer. A lady &c. &c. &c. The Doctor I shall describe at length being the tallest of the party – being also extensively got up for the occasion – Let me begin at his head – first a “bran new hat” with oiley gloss which got its first christening on the beam of the Cabin door – next came a white choaker “pearly white” none the worse (much) for being constantly used when the M.D. read the Sunday service on the ship. Clean white shirt of course, next with extensive display of frill in front – Then a coal-black surtout & inexpressibles completes the rig. no. an umbrella under the arm of the M.D. is to be added (pours rain)…. Now the Doctor is 6ft. 2in. in his shoes what must he be in high heeled boots, and touring “bell-topper”? Now he is seen merging from his cabin – +++ Hark! What crash is that! it is the venerable hat that has got its Christening knock on one of the beams of the good ship! He soon rights though –

112.   A Mishap –

On. on he proceeds. our eyes follow him till we see him sit “all right” in the boat which is now nearly full, eight souls being already in the small craft. At length they “shove off”. in about 10 minutes more I with a couple other passengers leave in another boat – As we got near the shore we rapidly gained on “Doctor’s” deeply laden craft. and now they are within 100 yards of the shore. and we about the same from them. See there! there is something wrong with them. great confusion – Oars seem to go about in wild confusion. performing wonderful aerial fights – then owners & oars fall together in to the Watery – element! one – two – three All save one – scramble about in wild confusion – like if each one had lost some thing but had got into the wrong place to look for it. When I saw this I

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became alarmed for their safety – uttered some exclamation

113.   Continued

and seized the boatman’s oars thinking thus to accelerate our speed – But the boatman coolly told me “they could walk to shore” which I was very glad to see they were now succeeding in doing – The sight was ludicrous how all scrambled & tossed about for “bare life” – The Doctor towering high above the rest & the stout Irishman coolly persisting in keeping his seat in the stern of the boat altho’ the water was up to his shoulders, while the boat man towed him ashore. Poor Doctor’s hat & toggery got a sorry welcome to the land of their adoption! He nevertheless made himself useful under the difficulty taking the lady on one arm and holding up the umbrella with the corresponding limb. altho’ as wet as possible! The boat it seems filled by the stern and went down, fortunately not in very deep water. I need hardly say that our boat landed all right at a wooden pier called “Wynyard pier”

114.   – Auckland –

The town of Auckland is beautifully situated commanding a fine view:- the sea and shipping – the Pilot station with numerous hills around. The town is built in rather a straggling manner. the streets are very few of them level and terminate steeply & abruptly. the houses are most all built of wood, but some of the public buildings are built very substantially of either stone or brick. There are three churches of stone and one of brick. There is the R.C., Anglican, Weslyan & Scotch Church besides others constructed of wood. There is then the Govmt. House & Gaol. A house of Assembly. two barrocks capable of accomodating 600 men. A Commissariat Office, Govt.  Offices. A Mechanics Instte. several Hotels and house accomodation for about 10,000 inhabitants (now 20,000 – (1863))

115.   Continued

The town is now (1863) about 23 years old having been proclaimed the Captl. of New Zealand by Govr. Hobson in 1840 – Four I.C.R.M. Steamers keep the good people of the Colony in constant supply of “latest intelligence”. there are also a host of other Strs.  which are constantly employed plying from port to port – chiefly in the cattle & sheep trade, consequent on the gold discoveries made in Otago in 1862 – Imported coal sells at £2.10 per ton, but Auckland coal (not fit for steam purposes) at 30/- a ton. The Coast towards the South-East boundary of the Province beginning with Cape Colville, ending with Poverty Bay includes Mercury bay, Taranga [Tauranga] harbour, Maketu, the Bay of Plenty & Hawkes Bay is chiefly in the hands of the natives with the exception of very small spots along the coast occupied by Europeans who make a living by growing wheat & selling it to the coasting vessels

116.   – Looking About –

which called there for it. The land is chiefly good, but of course as long as it lays in hands of the natives there is no making or improving of them. The land extending from Poverty Bay to Ahuriri is well adapted for sheep runs & I believe the Ahuriri district including Hawkes bay will yet be one of the most flourishing districts in New Zealand —

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I had not remained long in Auckland when I discovered what most immigrants do shortly after arrival that they have “come to the wrong place” in fact that there was nothing to be done there. I remained for about a month in the Metropolis of New Zealand without seeing or hearing of any opening for me, in fact that most of the land there was in the hands of “Land Jobbers”, who would

117.   Hawkes Bay

not sell for anything less than facticious value – And even granting one obtained these lands at reasonable rates – they were only at best “patches”. I wanted something more substantial – a larger tract – A sheep run would suit all to pieces!! but I knew I should have much difficulty in obtaining one, as the event proved – And as there was not the slightest chance of getting one in Auckland province, I determined to see Hawkes Bay – So I once more got on board ship – (small coaster this time 61 tons) the best that could be had at that time. (In five years after, Steamers traded between Auckland & the South calling at Napier three times a week). After a tedious and stormy passage of 14 days (Strs’ time 40 hours), I arrived in the harbour of Napier on the 12th. November 1858. Napier which is the port town is built on what may be called an island (only a narrow spit keeping it from being entirely

118.   Thoughts of taking a Sheep “run”.

surrounded by water) – “The island”, as it is called, contains about 500 acres, and is now 1863 well studded with houses – the principal buildings being the Scotch & English churches, The Govmt. buildings, Masonic Lodge, Gaol, Emmigration barracks, and the Military Barracks on the most prominent part of the Island – The Island may be called a large hill, the shipping & stores at the one extremity and the town at the other – The main road connecting the two & running thro’ a gully nearly intersects the hill.

I spent some 6 months in the Country; At the end of which time I concluded “this was decidedly a pastoral district and should (with extreme caution) purchase a sheep run “therein”. At the same time wishing to get a peep at the Southern Island; most of the Country here being exceedingly broken with much fern theron. And also a “Maori difficulty” to contend with, which does not exist in the South Island.

119.   A Trip South

On the 7th. April 1859, I went in company with a cousin (A. Duff) “on a voyage of discovery” down South: both mounted on good horses, we set off in the best of Spirits, steering for Wellington by coast road, making about 35 miles that (the first) day – viz from Mr. Tanner’s Station on the Ruataniwha Plains to Mr. Cannings Porangahau. There I had the most severe attack from Mosquitoes that any one can conceive – roasting hot – nailing 2 or 3 at a time! no sleep to be had as a matter of course. Next day made a stage of 50 miles from Mr. Canning’s to Dr. Featherston’s Atea. The country here was very rough indeed. one hill the “Aktia [Akitio?] hill” thro’ which is a bush track of about a mile in length. I thought I would never ascend, pouring rain too & enveloped in a heavy Pilot Cloth Coat. Next day stage about 60 miles from Dr. Featherston’s to Cripp’s Acc. [Accommodation] house on Warriheimi [Warrihama]

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river –

120.   Wellington –

next day. stage about 50 miles – from Warrihama to “Hales” on the Warrapu [Wairarapa] Plains, and lastly from there to the Hutt valley, 30 miles – Total journey upwards of 200 (225) miles – time 4½ days. From the Hutt a van took us into Wellington – This town or as the inhabitants delight to call it, the “Empire city” is rather pretty on the whole, it being built on a beach along a fine Bay and harbour – with the Hutt valley opening out at the head of the bay or at the extremity of the beach road. The land in the Hutt valley is very limited, but exceedingly rich, wooded hills rising on either side. Land in the Hutt is valuable – fetching very high prices. *This land keeps from ten to fourteen sheep all “the year”. After staying about a fortnight here we determined to visit the Province of Canterbury. We sailed in the “Queen” Str., [Steamer] making the passage in some 20 hours. As we approached the land we

121.   Canterbury –

both immediately admired the Country – looking better than any we had yet seen – No fern hills all grass – When I landed I found the price of said land was £2 per acre. (great difference – it is 5/- in Napier). We spent a few days in Christchurch the capital, and met with a Country Settler of the name of Fraser – who recommended us to go up Country to see a run of his – 20,000 acres in extent – this he had for sale, at least the lease thereof – Accordingly we started on our way with fine weather, clear & cold (Winter). Hard frosts at night – Our stages were exceedingly long – tedious & disagreeable averaging 60 miles a day – Nothing to catch the eye – a dreary waste of plain – grass with stones very thickly strewd thereon – some Cabbage trees – and the blue mountains far far away, the only thing we had to guide us in finding our way –

122.   Mckenzie Country

The rivers in this country are exceedingly dangerous and rapid, especially one the Rangitata; I being nearly carried off in the same – At length we neared the far off blue hills already mentioned – and then the Country seemed to improve – We were directed to look out particularly for the pass thro’ these hills called the “Mckenzie pass” which we found after a little difficulty. It is called after one of that name who first discovered it, who was in turn discovered “bolting” to Otago with 2000 sheep! from a run-holder named Rhodes for whom he was shepherding – After leaving this “pass” a few miles behind, we came on very fine country indeed – the “Mckenzie Country” – probable extent 200,000 acres, well grassed, and low undulating hills & well suited for sheep. After spending a week at Frazer’s Station and after going over the 20,000 acre run we came to see, we shaped our course homeward,

123.   Ahurihi [Ahuriri] again –

having settled in our mind that the country would not suit us for these reasons – no timber of any kind – not even fire-wood – The severity of the climate – and the difficulty of exporting the wool – high price of sheep – 32/- to 36/- per head & hardly to be got at that – Also scab in the neighbourhood – This Country is

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not settled as yet (1859), but I pity the poor Settlers in that severe climate with no firewood & clay huts. *In six years after every spot here was settled on – coal was also found in the neighbourhood. I saw one, the only one there living in a tent and miserable enough – mud floor frozen hard at night & melted into mud by the heat of the sun in day time! &c &c &c to the miseries! After 3 days journey we arrived at Christchurch: spent a few days at Lytelleton [Lyttelton], shipped from thence to Wellington, at which place my fellow traveller left for Melbourne & I for Ahurihi. & in a few days after my arrival made a purchase on the 18th. August 1865 of 8,000 acres of good agricultural land.

124.   First Shearing – 1860

for which I paid 10/- an acre. this I bought on a Mr. Domett’s run who had already purchased 4,000 acres on the same block of 15,000 acres & which I thought could easily be got from him : in this however I was mistaken having to go to Nelson (where he lived & was Commissioner of C. [Crown] Lands big gun! there) twice before I succeeded in getting it & even then I had to engage the best Lawyer I could get & threaten Mr. Domett with a Law suit before I brought him to terms – at length I brought him too & bought his land at 15/- per acre and his sheep (1700) at 16/7d per head. All of which came to a pretty round sum – I may here mention that my thanks are due to the Hon. A. G. Tollemarche [Tollemache] who aided me much in bring my obstreperous friend to terms – And now I fairly began “bush-life”. My first shearing January 1860 was at a neighbouring station, a Mr. McLean’s, some 6 miles distant, and most assuredly I was glad when that job was

125.   Woolshed &c errected [erected] – 1861

done. what with mosquitoes, flies, dust & filth one could hardly persuade himself that he was not a Maori! I lost a great many sheep that year too – nearly 5 p.ct. [per cent] of the ewes; having to drive so far – As I said, I was glad shearing was over – (39 bales Wool the clip) – and determining to errect Woolshed and yards for next shearing cost what it might, which I did, and a large one too – which determination was duly carried out – the yards are large containing 300 panels of fence – the Woolshed is 24ft. by 20 ft. with a night pen round side and end capable of holding 150 sheep – The cost of the shed might be about £150; the yards costing little less. The shed I errected myself. Also a cottage 20 ft. by 12 ft. cost £100, a store also 12 ft. sq. The first shearing in this shed was very successful having finished in 12 days, no casualties in flock – clip – 36 bales Wool January 1861.

127.   An Offer to purchase the runm

X X X And now 1862 comes in, and The Hon. A. G. Tollemache (before mentioned) offers to buy my run & sheep. 14,000 acres with 3,000 sheep. his offer is £14,000 which I respectfully declined – but I agree to exchange it for another run some 30 miles distant – A fine run of 18,000 acres well dotted over with bush X X X

Four months passes over and he draws out of his bargain – well I take it coolly as no good comes of strife – Four months more elapses and he makes me another offer for my run – £1400 a year for 11 years and £14,000 at the end of that time – This was a good offer certainly – but I also declined it! I very nearly

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took it though only £500 between us – I wanted that paid in cash, as sort of valuation for improvements, which he declined, so so no bargain was made – Afterwards I offer to buy the adjoining run – a nice little run of about 15,000 acres and well grassed. This with 5,000 sheep I bought for £12,000 in February 1863 16/- per ac.[acre]

128. Things in general.

There is a good house and woolshed with yards, paddocks also on it – The woolshed I have taken down and added to the one already errected; it is 40 ft./ 30 ft. The whole night pen now holds 350 sheep comfortably & stowage in shed for 30 bales with plenty room for two pressers – wool table &c. – I believe I did a wise thing buying this latter run altho’ many people tell me I ought to have accepted his last offer. Time will tell who is right. – – – – Now the season is far advanced and I finish another shearing – the third – finish Jan. 3 1863. The new year is especially marked by discoveries of Gold to the South – in Otago – And to the North at Coromandel – This has tended to give the Colony a little start on a fresh impetus to the all but Stagnant Merchant trade – Many thousands of diggers having come over from Australia

129.   Earthquake –

to Otago – Affairs seem unsettled at home. The American war seems to have produced Calamities not only on themselves but also on the whole world at large. The Lankashire [Lancashire] operatives in particular – who depended on manufacturing cotton goods suffered greatly – This distress notwithstanding worked for good both to themselves and to the Colonies to which they emigrated – The price of Wool is low as a matter of course and will continue so until confidence is restored – 1/3d to 1/5d being the average of the London prices (washed wool). A good many events transpired in this Northern Island during 1863 – On the 21st. March we were visited by an Earthquake so heavy that we in Hawkes Bay were considerably alarmed and not without cause, the effects being very severe. About 1 oc.  A.M. I was wakened by the terrific rattling

130.   The Earthquake –

of doors, windows &c. I was nearly thrown out of my bed. I soon sprang out however & rushed outside, but on the ground I could not stand I had to sit down! it shook so – Indeed I thought “the time of the end” had come – the shake continued so long. The birds fell from their perches and the fowls made a most unearthly noise. All chimneys, as a matter of course, were thrown down – The peculiar sensation I felt at that time (when sitting on the ground) I can hardly describe, I felt as if sitting on boiling water – the ground seemed to bubble so, beneath me – The spurs & Creeksides were rent so as to preclude & slur the usual tracks, & the soil on said spurs seemed as if ploughed & harrowed. And One Settler had the Nails of his house (those fastening the weatherboards) draw about 1 inch out of the stud. The mud in the different swamps was shaken up – so that the formerly

131.   A Trip to the Wakarara.

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clear creeks became quite discolored.

From the 4th. Feb. until about the end of the month I had most tedious work taking delivery of the 5,000 sheep I had already purchased from the Hon. A. G. Tollemache in accordance with agreement dated Novr. 9th. 1862.

In April I took a trip to the back of the Wakarara Hills along with a Mr. Herrick – I enjoyed the trip having fine weather until within a few miles of home when it began to rain heavily. The first night we camped on the top of a limestone hill where we had a good view of the surrounding scenery. The high rugged Ruahine mountains covered with “Black Birch” trees and a Manuker [Manuka] valley on the one hand & the Wakarara Hills on the other. A nice little Lake lay below the hill we were on. We determined to fish for eels here. Natives telling us beforehand that there were lots there.

132.   The trip Continued

Accordingly we killed a wild pig, baited our hooks, and waited patiently for two long’ hours without “getting a bite” – at length the night was fast advancing – the moon shining clear and bright above us and the night birds screeching & flying round the Lake, and we thinking it high time to make our supper & bed left the Lake disgusted with the “job without success”. in the morning we concluded that there were no eels in the Lake, having at night fastened our bated lines to flax bushes and found them undisturbed in the morning – We stayed another day in the “wild regions” – but could hear nothing of “wild dogs” – the object of our visit being to ascertain if there were any there – We camped on another hill next night about one mile nearer home, during the night it turned very cold, & came on to blow hard – After breakfasting on young roast pig, we shaped our journey homeward –

133.   War in Taranaki

I stayed at Herrick’s (Lyon’s Station) that night & enjoyed myself very well. Herrick & another playing duetts on the Flute accompanied by apples and Whiskey – hot! Next day I arrived at home delighted to return to the “land of civilisation”. I must not omit to mention the fact or event of my first having meals in the new house errected by me on the 17th. April 1863.

On the 4th. June, War again made its appearance in New Zealand and God only knows how or when it may end. This time the Natives were the agressors committing 7 most shocking murders at Taranaki. This was of course a signal for the commencement of hostilities. and exactly one month from the commission of these murders (the 7th. May) Our troops took summary vengance  on the natives, rushing their pah & killing and wounding from 80 to 100 of them – After this affair the Natives were hardly to be seen in the neighborhood, & the troops

134.   War in Wikato [Waikato] –

received orders to embark for Auckland. We in this Province could not at all make out what was up. People & papers were beginning to say that Maoris had frightened government! But there were some that said the Government intended making a war on Wikato the most powerful tribe in New Zealand as also the seat of discord and the “King Movement” in centre of North Island. By and by we saw in the Newspapers that the Governor had declared war on the Wikatos. He told them in a proclamation that they had

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constantly threatened a descent on Auckland and that he required them to lay down their arms and swear allegiance to Her Majesty, which they refused, consequently war was begun – God only knows how this Province will fare if the war is carried on in Wikato, but the sooner things are at their worst the sooner they will mend. And I believe that when the war is properly ended that this Province will be

135.   Provincial praparations [preparations] –

more flourishing than ever it was – We have been making some little preparations for the worst in this district. We have enrolled 100 men and already formed them into a cavalry company. We have also called out a militia numbering about 400 men, arms &c are being distributed to the various companies which are now drilling in all the different districts – Two King’s flags are hoisted in this Province, the one at Patane [Petane] & the other at Te Aute, this looks bad. Still we look calmly on this knowing that it must come to a brush with the Natives and the sooner it is over the better. And then may the All-seeing eye of the All-wise disposer direct and guide all our actions – On the 2 July this year (1863) I joined the Masonic Lodge Napier – I was also very near receiving a very severe injury in the

136.   Militia drill –

face from a colt which I was breaking in. I happened to be holding him at the time, the groom busying about the crupper, the animal suddenly reared, and in his descent struck me in the eye with his fore foot. The blow was so severe I felt seasickness at once. I could hardly speak. my eye was “bunged up” with clay & it did not recover for nearly a month after. Although I came out and put the horse through pretty violent exercise after I had washed the clay from my eye – – –

Splendid winter this (1863) has been. Sheep look well! I will dock about 100 p.ct. of lambs.

Shocks of Earthquake are still felt altho’ slight –

On the 25th. September the Militia in the immediate neighborhood were enrolled at an outstation of mine, they numbered 30. Drill lasted until the 30th. Novr. being twice a week or 42 hours.

137.   Bull Practice

It was a horrid bore indeed, having to march twice a week for about 3 mls. [miles] to the drill ground with rifle &c. &c. Station work was of course at a stand still, but at the end of the time our Company went thro’ the drill very well and could “form fours” or “form square” with great ease, altho’ “Front form squad” used to bother them. And “the Compy. will advance in skirmishing order : by the right, quick march!” I had also the honor? of being bugler for the occasion. At the end of our drill we had some shooting practice at the different distances of 100, 150, 200, & 300 yds. We had 20 rounds each. I scored 15 points out of the 20, making on the last day, a “bullseye” at 200 yds, a “centre” at 300 yards &c &c. I trust our services in the field will never be required, but if they should : the foe will find us “good shots” at least – We expect a grand crash in Wikato &

138.   Shearing.   The Maori War &c.

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the rebel strong hold taken. Query. Will then the Natives disperse & fight, or give in. I have great doubts on this head. I believe the former supposition will turn out correct, as The Natives have been taught to believe that they can do any thing by bounce, and when they get one or two good chastisements it will have the effect of bringing them to their senses –
Decr.[December] 21st. Sheep Shearing 1863 is now nearly over (with me) I have had very bad weather indeed. On the 23d. Decr  I finished: having very bad weather all through – Had 99 bales wool from about 10,000 sheep –

There has been a grand fight in Wikato – 173 maori prisoners taken & about 66 killed – The “Union Jack” is now flying on King Potatau’s palace! but I hear the Maoris have not “given in” yet. Coal has also been discovered on the Waikato river fit for steam purposes. Thus ends 1863 – – –

139.   January 1st. 1864. –

A new year has now commenced, and I determine to see “bonnie Scotland” in a few months: great changes have occurred there since I left, now nearly six years ago. Death the “grim King” has been making sore ravages both in our parish and in our family. My Uncle, My Brother & My Sister have all left this World of toil & trouble, of sorrow & sighing, my fervent hope is to be for ever with the Lord – Oh, May the Almighty prepare me for this great change, as I must assuredly go this way too, and follow after our dear departed friends whom I shall never see in this world again – – – –

There is disputing between Hugh & Alick Duff about their “run” on the Wakarara, but I hope this will be settled amicably, although I fear not. Hugh is in the wrong as far as I can see & wants the Lion’s share &c.

Jany. 12. Beautiful summer weather. Busy making a paddock with James Smith, my cousin, at back of house for rams & rough sheep. (said rough sheep consist of “stragglers” found on the run after shearing.)

140.   Station Business –

Feb 15. I have transacted a good deal of business since my last notes – Finished the Paddock – Mustered (had 3 days at that) & drafted the sheep delivering – 1500 Wethers (1200 15/-, 300 18/- . Also took out rough sheep & Rams – This draughting was very disagreeable owing to the exceeding drought & dust; it lasted four days – I was almost choked with dust – After this I rode to the Native Pah and got a Maori to shear the rough sheep – then proceeded to Napier and sold the Rams (@ 25/-) – After coming up I learned that the “Photograph-Man” was at McLeans Station. I rode down – took himself and trap up, putting “Prince” in it, (his horse having broke down), & I am to get him to take some views to take home. The weather was indeed most beautiful – I also sank a well in the Paddock at the back of the house and succeeded in finding water at a

141.   Taking views &c

depth of about five feet from which place, I have left directions, that the water should be brought to the Woolshed – Next day being fine, I had the “Photograph man” pretty busy taking views. I had 2 taken of back of house with Woolshed in distance, 2 of front with kitchen in back ground – 1 from hill on

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back of house, of the run with Wakarara in distance. 1 of creek near the house & 2 views of Aorangi house. 8 in all. However, not being pleased with the views – (For which I paid £5), I gave the “Artist”! £1 extra. & got the glasses which I will bring home, & have the views transcribed on paper in London – Good idea this –

And now as I have only a few more days left before leaving for Napier and Melbourne en route for London I determine to make the best possible use of them. Accordingly I gave directions for a general search

142.   Preparations for leaving

on the run for Thistles (some being found at Mustering). Accordingly three of us started on horse back & after searching nearly all day found about a dozen which we duly burnt. This was on a place called the “Sheep paddock”. I must confess this considerably alarmed me, And I (We) renewed the search next day – also found a few more this time – Next day I despatched two men in a quite diffrent direction, (Hector Duff & a shepherd), while J. Smith, A. Duff & myself went out to burn fern:- this now being my last day (for the present) at the station. I determined to have a grand conflagration & so it proved for the three of us set to work and burnt a space of near 5,000 acres making a smoke like if the “whole Country was afire” – And this was equally as good a job done as the destruction of the Thistles –

143.   New Zealand

This fire was on the “Aorangi block”.

Next day I started with Hector & Alick Duff for Napier races en route for Napier. The races were pretty good and the weather fine, very warm.

I now was as busy as possible drawing up contracts for fencing – arranging boundaries with J. N. Wms. a neighbouring runholder or run-manager. I found I had a great deal of business to do before starting and little time to do it in too – And after being closely closited in Gill’s (Masonic Hotel – I had left “the Club”) little room – sometimes alone – sometimes with Hector & Alick Duff, sometimes with Neil & Peter Walker the contractors & sometimes with all of them together. I got all the contracts made out and duly signed – I then found I had a good deal of fencing to get done – 1 mile with D. McLean, 1 with Walker & 3 with Williams at a cost of about £180 a mile. I also sold 1000 broken mouth Ewes to Parker for 16/6.

144.   Leaving Napier –

to be delivered before the present shearing. I also bought 2 Bush sections at Keruru [Kereru] from E. Tuke – I believe this to be a capital move as I think timber will be very scarce by the time I come out again – Along with my other business I had a good deal of Bank business – drawing gold – placing money to station acct., authorising H. Duff to pay Station hands, getting letters of credit on London Branch – Settling about the Wethers already delivered & last of all getting balance of Wool money & letters to Wool Brokers in London &g. &c.

March 10th. 1864. I take my passage on board the “Lord Ashley” R. M. Steamer for Otago for which I pay £14. We left about 4 oc P.M. and after a tremendously rough passage of 60 hours we

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arrived in Wellington, it was a very unseasonable

145.   Wellington –

hour we arrived about 12 o’c Saturday night: however we 3 of us Clark Kerr & Captn. Anderson, repaired to the Queen’s Hotel where we all got safely moored for the night. about 10 o’c next day I was walking the way of the Pt. [Post] Office and met my former friend the Hon. A.G. Tollemache who asked me up to his house which invitation I declined as the Steamer was soon to sail again. He wished me much to forego my visit to Melbourne & to leave for London in a ship he was going by from Wellington the “Wild Duck” to leave on the 9th. April & had just one Cabin berth still vacant – I declined however, not knowing why rightly but I had some strange predjudice against the present trip of the “Wild Duck”. I left at 2 o’clock that day and after a pleasant passage of 24 hours, arrived next

146.   Christchurch

at Lyttleton [Lyttelton] Canterbury. we stayed a day there & visited the “City” of Cristchurch [Christchurch] – I really must give the people of said place great praise for their enterprise – The buildings are all neat & tasteful – with fine wide streets the sides of which are planted trees. What particularly strikes the eye is the tasteful gardens around the equally neat cottages. I hardly knew the place that I had seen five years before, It had made such rapid progress. And to add to other enterprises they have got a railway there – the line is not yet completed – but when it is so – say in a year hence – the Christchurch & Lyttleton people will have quick and cheap communication, the latter place being of great importance being the shipping port – Next day we left for Otago and after a good passage

147.   Leave Otago –

arrived next day at Port Chalmers the shipping port of Otago. March 15th.

And here we learnt (to my surprise at least) that we had to go up the river or arm of the sea in a small Steamer to Dunedin eleven miles distance. They are “slow going coaches” in Otago. We had to wait about four hours before the Tug-boat came along side, and this delay to a mail steamer was too much. But the “Old Identity”) did not seem in a hurry to get their letters &c. I stayed three days here enjoying myself very much, Dunedin bearing more resemblance to an English town than any I had yet seen in the Colony. The Hotels were also on a much better plan than in any of the other Provinces. So much for the effects of Gold discoveries. The other buildings are also very good. March 18th. 1864. I left Otago for Melbourne per Mail Steamer “Aldinga”, and after a most tempestuous passage of seven days arrived at Sandridge pier Melbourne – with fortunately

148.   Melbourne –

no other damage than the Shaft of the propeller bent –

It being late at night when we arrived at Sandridge I slept there that night and went up by rail to Melbourne next morning – The distance is about three miles – Melbourne is now a very large city having its factories and warehouses on a very grand scale. The town is laid out very tastefully and so simply that a

Page 22

stranger can find out almost any place with very little trouble. Railways run to and fro in almost all directions, and cabs are as numerous on the Streets of Melbourne as in any town of the same size in England. Shortly after I arrived I observed there was to be “a grand review” of the Melbourne volunteers some 20 miles out of town at a place called Sunbury.

149.   Sunbury –

I had been told of this place before leaving New Zealand, And that a Mr. R. Brodie lived about three miles therefrom, who of course I determined to visit, he coming from almost the same place in Scotland as myself. The railway also went out as far as Sunbury. All these facilities combined decided me in going out there which I accordingly did next day. And I was well rewarded by seeing said review of men, consisting of about 4,000. They went through their evolutions well as far as I could judge. They were reviewed by the Governor Sir C. Darling – I afterwards walked to the residence of Richard Brodie Esq., some three miles distant from Rail. Station & after some difficulty found the house. He was “not at home” however, & I determined to spend the night there at any rate – In a few hours he arrived and

150.   “Bulla Bulla”

after discussing some Colonial wine of his own making we retired to bed. Next day he shewed [showed] me his vineyard quite loaded with grapes, most of them were nearly ripe too. Of course I had my share of them – Afterwards he brought me some magnificent apples which I also partook of and was much refreshed thereby the heat then being most oppressive. I spent about a week there: during the day I used to go to a creek close by and fish with varied success – about three or four being the general take – Mr. B generally going out to ride round his grounds I suppose, which extended to about the bounds of 10,000 acres. I believe most of it is fenced and under sheep. This place was called “Bulla Bulla” but R. B. Esq. called it “Ellensville”. I very soon tired of being here

151.   A Thunderstorm

and determined to leave on the first opportunity – But the night before I left I witnessed the most terrific thunderstorm that ever I saw or ever wish to see again. There was the finger & power of God clearly shown us – the whole earth and sky were in one blaze of blue or yellowish sulphurous fire – I shall never forget that night when standing in the doorway and looking out amidst the torrent of rain and the deafening crash of thunder I could see the whole landscape lighted up – the creeks, ravines and trees as clear as noon day – then I turned my eyes towards the ground – there I could discerne [discern] the smallest possible object, bits of paper – broken bottles – spoons &c. I looked once more towards the trees in the garden – there I could see the apples on the trees. And all this was seen with a dull unearthly light – But the

152.   Thunderstorm (Melbourne)

most unearthly sight of all was the landscape as it appeared lightened with one of those enormous volumnes [volumes] of fire – By then I could see over a space of about two square miles with

Page 23

perfect distinctness and if horses or cattle were there you could not fail to see them – It was the wild unearthly light that seemed to me so appaling [appalling]. Then I returned to the house and there the most minute crevice was lighted with these flashes and this was all the same whether the doors were shut or not – I then drew the thick window curtains in hope to keep the glare out, but in this I was mistaken – The roar of the thunder all this time being most terrific – It was long indeed before I slept that night thinking of Nature & Natures God – I left shortly after this for Melbourne,

153.   The Country

but arriving 4 hours too soon at the Railway Station I enjoyed a nice walk to a hill some two miles distant. From the top of this hill I had a good view of the country round. In the immediate neighbourhood farming seemed to be the chief industry – but towards the blue mountains I could see in the distance, Mining reigned supreme. On the more level lands pastoral pursuits – sheep farming &c. were the principal. One thing in particular came under my notice, this was the prevalence of the Scotch thistle. Whole tracts of country were quite spoiled by them – & it is to me a mistry [mystery] how Agricultural farmers contend with them at all. From this hill I could see that the country abounded with timber which looked to me very dense indeed, but in reality is “conveniently open” – I now descended the hill – got into the train and in two hours arrived in Melbourne.

154.   Quartz Crushing.

I next determined to visit Ballarat, a great mining district some two or three hundred miles from Melbourne. And after arriving there (by train) took a cab to the Quartz crushing works of the “Black hill” Company. These works (with the others I saw that day) were certainly among the most wonderful I had seen since leaving England – – – –

The hill on which these are carried on presents the appearance of a huge sugar loaf-shaped hill with half the top cut off & with huge holes and excavations all through. This appearance I saw at a little distance – namely the top of the hill & side surface as well were quite removed but when I ascended, I was quite astonished to see it quite embowelled, in fact “gutted” – the inside being taken out & the workmen still continuing the process, The debris being removed

155.   Alluvial deposits

in barrows and emptied into trucks, that ran down an inclined plane to the Crushing Machinery. And these emptyiny [emptying] themselves returned to the workmen without assistance. This was effected by a rope attached to the empty truck which the full one pulled up in its descent. I next viewed the Machinery which was on a large scale. Amongst other things were sixty “stamps” or rods of say 2½ inch Mettle which all day and all night pounded at the debris conveyed from the trucks – and this stuff was afterwards submitted to a washing process – &c &c. I next took the cab to visit the Works of the “Great Extended” Company – I arrived there in due time & descended the shaft – which was some 400 feet deep, in an iron truck or cage used for lifting the alluvial deposit, worked by steam. Down – down I went. I was greatly terrified – – Water began to fall

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156.   The “Great Extended”

on my head. The Atmosphere got warm & oppressive, a deafness & oppression came over me, down – still down I went at a great rate – At length smack crash, on the bottom, up to the ankles in water – all darkness – I was afraid to move fearing that the cage had stuck in the shaft, thinking, I had not yet made the full descent, until a voice called “stoop your head – this way” I did so – then I thought I was in some of the infernal regions of the earth : there were men to be seen like spirits moving about with candles, some drinking – tea, I saw as one of them offered me some which I was glad to accept being almost in a fainting state – After the workmen had dinner they gave me a candle & took me through the Skeleton Lanes and passages of the pit, which being propped with wooden pillars & cross

157.   Company –

beams above, (making one stoop double) and ankle deep in water below rendered the exploration very unpleasant. They showed me some very good specimens of this alluvial deposit – the gold being thickly strewed over the surface – This hole was all ramified with truck lines – the trucks were filled – sent up in the shaft – & then exposed to washing and amalgamating processes – Upwards of £150,000 is thus taken yearly out of the bowels of the earth. These works pay the share-holders 150 per cent or £15.00 a year. The workmen in this horrible hole only get £2 per week find themselves & risk their lives – I now returned to Melbourne and on April 8.

I took coach for Mansfield a place 200 miles up Country – I left Melbourne at 7 o’c A.M.

158.   Mansfield.

the morning-Coach crammed as “herrings in a barrel” and after a most tedious ride,, (after a little unpleasantness from ladys’  crinolines), arrived at 8 o’c P.M. at an Hotel about half-way – At 12 oc AM we were again on the tramp and did not arrive at our destination until 9 o’c of the second morning. But if our first days journey was bad the second was a hundred times worse, especially the night part of it which was first through a dense forest, then up a tremendous hill where we had to come out and walk – a distance of about 3 miles, this we thought at first a little relief from being cramped up in such a small space – however we soon found our mistake – rain descended in torrents our feet going at times up to the knees in water – the night being so dark – and we also to

159.   Mansfield

keep pace with the coach which went often at a good round trot & when we got in at the usual sound of “All-Aboard”, we found our seats wet, the top of the coach leaking &c. oh how miserable! * N.B. The misery of some of the passengers was greatly augmented by the fear of the coach being “stuck up” which occurred to the same coach at the same place, a short time previous –

The scenery going through the bush was indeed grand rendered more so by the light of the lamps falling on the barkless gum trees which then appear white making one believe the whole forest was covered with snow – I was not sorry when I dismounted at the “Mansfield Hotel”, kept

Page 25

by William Smith. I stayed here about a week but for three full days I had not recovered the dreadful shaking I got so that I dreaded the return journey –

I had some very good shooting here! the bush abounding with Parrots & Pigeons in thistle beds, both of which but especially the latter affording excellent sport.

160.   1864   Examination

On the 13th. I left for Melbourne in quite as crowded a coach as the one in which I came up. But the journey although far from pleasant was not nearly so bad as the former – the roads being better – & the weather good. I arrived in Melbourne at 6 o’c P.M., just in time for dinner and although tired, I certainly did relish it more, I think than any since leaving New Zealand – So much for that! –

Next morning I set about making preparations for my departure for England – I examined the Columns of the “Argus” for gaining my first information as to the ships then on the berth for England. I observed that one of the “Blackwall” Liners was to leave on the 20th. This would just suit me provided I liked the look of the Ship – Accordingly I went down to Sandridge Pier where

161.   1864   of Ship &c.

she was lying, & after carefully looking at her from “Stem to Stern” & contrasting her with the others lying there I concluded that she was “Strong, Slow & Sure”. I also knew that all the ships of this line were “well found” & well provisioned. In fact I had determined before leaving New Zealand to sail by one of the Ships of this Line –

I then went up to Melbourne, called at the Agents’ office, & asked for a plan of the Ship – the “Roxburgh Castle” – nearly all the Cabins were taken – only two remained, one on the upper deck, the other on the lower – once more I went to Sandridge, went on board the vessel, asked to see the Cabins – the “Cuddie Steward” being called I was shown them. After due examination (see page 118) I again called on the Agents, enquired their price for the Cabin on the upper deck, they however declined to let me

162.   1864   Preparations &c –

have it, as they said “It did not pay them to let it to one when they had the chance of two taking it”. After further deliberation, and calling again I took the Cabin on the lower deck for reasons given in (page 118) for the sum of £75 – I had reason to be thankful for this choise [choice] throughout the whole of the voyage. I afterwards learned that the Cabin on the upper deck was taken by one person for £100 – said individual complained most bitterly throughout the voyage of the misery he experienced in rough weather – seas coming in, cold &c. In the meantime “I was” all right below. I had now only a couple of days left before taking my leave of Melbourne. These I occupied by getting seeds &c. &c. (see page 124). And also found time to see a good “trotting match”, two hours ride by train from Melbourne.

163.   The Departure –

April 20th. 1864 Wednesday. The day has at length arrived – and I now for the last time (I believe) take train with luggage to Sandridge – & get every thing in my Cabin by 12 o’c noon. It was a rainy unpleasant day when I

Page 26

left Melbourne – but now it clears – and I go ashore and take dinner at one of the Hotels there_- – – – – By 3 o’c a Tug-boat came along side and at 4 o’c  the “Roxburgh Castle” was “under way” – as we loosed off we got long and renewed cheering from the wharf, but as we passed the ships that were lying moored to it further on – the cheering was deafening. The rigging & decks being completely covered – hats waving – hands clapping &c., our crew also climbed the rigging & with the passengers on deck returned the cheers most heartily –

164.   1864   Last Sight of Land –

There is something particularly impressive in seeing a large ship with some 300 souls on board leaving for a long journey – such as ours must be – nearly to the end of the world. – A conviction of our bidding a last adieu to any favourite whether person – place or thing is to us mortals never a pleasant theme – especially when coupled with the expectation of three months misery cooped up on board ship – And here we see the wisdom of Our Great Master in keeping the Future hidden from us. However as I am no moralist or writer of sentiment I will wind up as soon as possible. The Tug str. took us past the “Heads” and left on the 21st., from which day the Captain dates his departure. We also lost sight of land to night circumstance which usually excites attention on all like occasions.

165.   Reflections –

I now descended to my Cabin and after a little trouble got things to “Ship-Shape”. At 6 o’c P.M. we had dinner – After which I had my evening smoke, went on deck & indulged in reflections – Moody I must say – My thoughts soon wandered back to the 31st. May 1858, the time of my departure from England – Nearly six years had gone since then and I found myself returning to the Mother Country. After having succesfully fought the first part of the battle of life & obtained a competence and would now return happy but for one thought – Oh! and what a bitter one it was, that the happy faces I left at home I should now see no more for ever. Death indeed has dealt his blows thick & heavy at home during my brief sojourne [sojourn]. My dear little Sister being numbered with the dead during this last year added to my grief & sorrow. When I think of home – of the rambles we used to have together the thought

166.   1864   Reflections –

oppresses & saddens the spirit – Yes, when I think of home I cannot fail but think of the different scenes & little excursions taken there; instead of these recollections being a source of happiness to me they are quite the opposite for Oh! there is a blank. A grevious sore opened in the heart when memory wanders back and connects the loved one with these scenes – for we always wandered together – played together & were at school together – My two elder Brothers having left us at home for College – .. …. Other members of my family have also left this vail of tears since my leaving home. May God in his infinite mercy grant that Our Family circle may be joined in Heaven where it never can be again broken by the rude hand of Death –

The weather for the first week or two was fine with good breezes: the Ship averaging about

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167.   A Storm

200 miles a day. However on the

4th. May, a change came “Oe’r the Spirit of our dream”, for we were visited with one of the most tremendous gales the Captain ever saw in this part of the world and he has doubled the Cape of Storms twelve times – Our position was 49 S. Lat. 164 W. Long. Towards night the weather looked thick – the Barometer falling every minute. nearly all sail was now taken off the ship which every minute descended into the trough of the sea as if never to rise again. then came a crash and off went the remaining sails, rent into a thousand fragments – What a deafening roar – I believe louder than the discharge of a hundred Armstrong guns, half-an-hour elapsed, and the gale was at its hight – The ship of course under “bare poles” – The rudder head was smashed with gare [gear] attached. Five men were stationed there with block & tackle.

168.   The Storm

The life-boat which was hung securely on “Cliffords principal” was lifted clear out of the davits and thrown far astern into the now boiling element – Tremendous seas break over the ship – I cannot tell how her sides are proof against such tremendous thumps – – – Hark ! Bang go the Main-deck bulwarks – A clean breach is made: the main rigging is now bare and exposed – if it goes the mast will soon follow! the stays now go! two on one side & three on the other. Merciful Providence look down upon us – it is a fearful night – the sea is blown in clouds in the air – the rain descends – the wind in the rigging is tremendous – Hark! another smash. Off go 60 feet of Bulwark, if the storm does not speedily

169.   Continues

abate, if we live through it, we must put back to Melbourne to refit. Now darkness comes on – with danger we move about – I know not how the sailors can venture on deck at all. But poor creatures I heard them working all night – I went to bed – I called on God to rebuke the winds and committing myself to his care I fell asleep – —

Next morning the sea had gone down a little by reason of the rain – the wind also had gone down – though still blowing a gale. Now we learned the extent of damage done. The Milch cow we had (for cabin use) died in the night – some seventy fowls – some sheep & pigs and one man had 3 ribs broken. But our greatest misfortune was the loss of our main-mast, at least it was so disabled that no sail could be put on it for many days, when it was strengthened by another spar – a mainyard

170.   Ice-bergs –

being securely lashed along it – The 6th. May 1864 – was comparitively calm but few seamen were now to be seen on deck – poor fellows they had been up for 48 hours – every stitch wet – & were in danger of being washed overboard every moment: they were now enjoying some rest from their labours and the ship seemed still & silent – Next day was spent in refitting. But those that were religiously inclined offered up to Heaven prayers and thanksgiving for this great deliverance which it assuredly was. One thing I note for my particular

Page 28

information, that is that May is to me a most unlucky month –

This I have five years experience of –
A week after this we were in the “Icey-regions”, S.L. at 57, we saw some half dozen ice-bergs, one we passed very close, it looked very pretty, assuming different

171.   1864   Low Latitudes –

colors and different forms as the ship advanced – most of the others we passed at a considerable distance – But one I saw at night looked very pretty indeed, it looked like a large mountain close up at the horizon – having a bright yellowish light round it – this seemed to me very remarkable as there was no Moonlight. It was now very cold & wet & we were very glad to fly to warm clothes – But with all I was quite unable to keep my feet warm – Many suffered from Childblains [Chilblains] on hands and feet – the cold was intense. The Ther. being 39 on deck. I was perfectly warm at night however having taken a Possum Rug with me from Melbourne. The days now hung very long & heavily on our hands, yet I managed to pass

172.   1864   An Accident

the time better than any of the other passengers, judging from their relation of sufferings endured, some of which were cold, wet, chilblains, want of sleep at night, caused by the excessive motion of the ship &c. &c.; from all these troubles I was exempt, and what tended most of all to my comfort was a comfortable cabin almost quite dry in the roughest weather. I also had plenty of warm clothing, plenty candles and pleasant reading – I mentioned before that I believed May to be an unlucky month for me. I felt now convinced of it, as on the morning of the 20th. the ship labouring I met with an accident which might have ended my wanderings on this world – I was standing near the Cuddie-door when the ship giving a tremendous lurch, I was thrown

173.   1864   Continued –

head-long against the side of the ship with such force that I thought the whole side of my head was driven in. I held out my arm as I approached the wooden wall, this was knocked out of joint at the shoulder blade. My nose seemed smashed – of course I was knocked down. After about five minutes I was able to go down to my cabin, my arm having been previously put right. My nose bled for two days – my head remained sore for a week – I could hardly sleep for the pain in my shoulder. It being impossible to lay on that (the left) side. My wrist also was very sore, however I thanked God it was not worse, and thought over more of the ill-luck which attended me in the month of May – The weather now was worse

174.   1864   How I spend the time

than when we passed the Ice-bergs – Rain – Snow – Wind and frost added to a short day with close confinement “below” – made most of us, even the most resigned – feel very miserable –

The days I have said were short – the sun rising about 10 o’c A.M. & setting about 3 o’c P.M. It being Winter in these dismal regions – rough boisterous weather of course fell to our lot.

I spent my time thus:- 1st. got out of bed at 8-30 A.M., when “childrens'” bell” rung – had breakfast at 9 o’c, managing to

Page 29

spin it out till 10 o’c – went below for ½ an hour – had a smoke for another half hour bringing the time up to 11 o’c ! went “below” again & read for ½ hour or till 12 o’c, came up – had “Bread-cheese” & glass of beer or spirits; it being very cold

175.   in the Cold Weather

this was very acceptable – smoked a pipe – Sat in Cuddie and was generally amused with the children taking dinner under difficulties, this brought the time to 1-15 P.M. . . Went again to my cabin, wrapped a rug round my feet & read until “the Warning bell” for dinner rang at 3-30 o’c – Dined at 4 o’c. with lamp-light of course, then smoked a pipe – went below, till 7 o’c then had tea. went below till 8-30 P.M. or 9 o’c. when the hot water came in! – Of course we welcomed the toddy! – I then had my evening smoke & went to bed * * * * * At length the days of our extreme misery began to terminate and the days to lengthen – with joy we hailed the sunshine coming in at the window at breakfast – this was a sight we were long strangers to & by & bye we were again able to go on the Poop – the sun now rose pretty

176.   1864   Catching Birds –

nearly to the top-gallant-yard (in the lowest latitudes it did not rise nearly so high as the Main-yard!) and as a matter of course threw out some heat which we felt very grateful for – we rounded “the Horn” on the 28th. May and were heartily glad of the “first milestone” being passed. And when we rounded this “Cape of Storms” our troubles seemed to have left us along with the Month, for ever since the first of June we have had fair and good winds saving a few calms at the Line, & at the ending of the N. E. [North East] Trades – always expected in said Latitudes –

4th. June – Were in 40 S. Lat. and had now good day-light viz from 7 o’c. A.M. to 5 P.M.. Yet we still take dinner with lamp light – We had some good sport catching birds with hook & line, four or five Albatrosses being caught but all these birds left us at 25 S. Lat.

11th. June. Sighted the island of Trinidad. The weather was now very agreeable we being in about 18 S. Lat.

177.   1864   Trade Winds &c

the Thermometer standing at 73 in Cuddie. In Lat. 16 S. We picked up the S.E. [South East] Trades.

18th. Crossed the Line, the trades carrying us to 4 N. Lat. After this we got in the “Doldrums” & had a week of disagreeable, close, wet weather hardly making 50 miles a day – We caught a couple of sharks here & saw lots of flying fish and bonito one or two of which were caught.

26th. June. in North Latitude 9-.30′, picked up the N.E Trades which at first blew weak but gradually increased to a 9 knot breeze at which they remained up to 30. N.L. [North Latitude]. We also saw the North Star and “Southern Cross”, both at once in the Heavens. A sight rarely seen –

1st. July. at 22. N. [North] Trades still continue strong – the evenings are cooler, and I can sleep comfortably with one blanket, the first time for nearly three weeks –

178.   1864   Provisions &c.

Page 30

Great conjectures and several bets (as usual on such occasions) are now being made about the date of our arrival – Plymouth being the general place named – the time the 21st. If I were to guess I should name the 25th. July. I must say I have experienced as much comfort on this ship as I could expect. The Captain and Officers are certainly neither civil or obliging, weeks passing without our knowing the ship’s reckoning &c. &c.. But their incivility I little cared for. Our other comforts were well attended to, such as good meals &c. I will detail the “luxuries” – A good opinion can be then formed – At Breakfast – there is 1st. Red herrings, 2d. preserved Salmond [Salmon], 3 do. herrings, 4th. Sardines: 5th. Grilled bones; 6th. tongue: 7th. Liver & bacon: 8th. Irish Stew – Eight good dishes with fair tea and coffee. At 12 o’c., we have Bread, Biscuit, butter & cheese. At 4 oc: the great event of the day! Dinner, we have numerous dishes, Soups, Roast mutton l, Boiled do 2, Roast Pork 3, Boild [Boiled] do 4, Sheep-head 5, with Geese

179.   Sea weed

or fowls, and ham & tongue – always six or eight good dishes to choose from. Then we have boiled & baked potatoes, carrots & peas – these also are good. Next we have a good desert of more than half dozen dishes, with Plum-pudding twice a week:- Sundays and Thursdays – 1st. jam or Marmalade roll, 2nd. Apple pudding, 3d. – Goose-berry damson, currant & cherry pies – 6. Fritters or puffs 7 – Next comes cheese:- then the cloth is lifted, and we wind up with Almonds & raisins 1, preserved ginger or pears 2, Prunes 3, , Figs 4, Nuts 5, Fancy biscuit 6, Ginger nuts 7 – Of course we have wine too – but we pay for this extra – Port 4/- Sherry do – Claret 4/-.

2 July – The Trades still hold out as strong as ever and we expect if the run is good next week, to get home in a fortnight. Today we passed a great quantity of Sea weed, which is always seen

180.   1864   Calms + At London!

in these Latitudes supposed to be brought by the Gulf Stream, which runs from the Gulf of Mexico – this sea weed afforded great amusement to the “Youngsters” fishing it – On the 3d. July we lost the N.E. Trades – and up to the 10th. had most disagreeable calms – the heat being broiling with a sea calm as glass – we passed seven days in this tedious weary way.

10th. July. Lat 32.15. Long 41.17, picked up a firm 3 knot southerly wind. Eight ships kept us Company in this calm, one of which a Dutchman we signalled, he was from Java 108 days out to Rotterdam – 92 miles

12th. Still good breeze: made 125 miles. On the 19th. in Lat 42.24. Long: 30.26. 900 miles from Lizard! and great speculations as to the day we arrive. I still think it will be about the 25th.

25th. July. 1864. The Pilot-boat came along side early this morning off Torquay. I embarked (altho’ blowing strong) and after a good run of about 30 miles (4 hours) arrived in the beautiful harbour of Torquay where I had the pleasure of seeing some

181.   Home at last !

of the noblest ships of our truly fine “Channel fleet”. There

Page 31

were the “Warrior”, “Black Prince”, “Edgar”, & “the Steam Rams” – After staying a few hours here & having my traps passed at Custom House I took train for London where I arrived that night. The weather was very warm, the streets disagreeably hot, the dust suffocating & the din & bustle unbearable. I was considerably amused at this at first; but in a short time began to long for the quiet repose of my own happy home, “far far away” – I was also agreeably surprised by meeting my brother James here – After devoting a few days doing business (ordering wool-press &c), I took a trip to Brighton Exhibition &c. &c. Shortly after I left with James per Steamer “Gambia”, Cpt Cargill, 48 hours run for Abdn.[Aberdeen], & from thence per “Vanguard”, for Thurso, 15 hours run, where we arrived on the 9th. August.

10th. August. 1864 arrived at Olrig where of course I was truly glad to come

* Curious fact – A year afterwards – that is the 10th. Aug. 1865, I arrived from England in New Zealand –

Oh! home! what scenes it calls up! What changes are there now! – No longer is the happy clear voices of my near and

182.   1864   Achalibster!

dear friends to be heard; these alas are now no more in this world for ever – How mournful the dear old house seemed – We always connect these dear old scenes with those we loved dearest and wandered with in the days long gone past never to return – It is only six years since I left but what great changes death has made since then – little did then I think that it would be so – I now realize the awful truth that Death is the enemy of our race & He will not be satisfied till he exhausts the last drop in the cup of our existance.
O man! as a flower thou art made to bloom and die – Although this is the middle of August the weather is stormy & cold.

Aug 24. 1864. Went to Achalibster – our old shooting ground – now seven years since I trod that moor – yet well did I recollect it, & with the quickness of lightning did the memory run back to that happy time, alas! to return

183.   Farewell –

no more, when I and my dear departed brother wandered over that heath blooming moor with dog and gun and many noble grouse we then brought down – and at night we used to return tired but happy to our shooting cottage & enjoy such happy happy nights with kind highland friends who are also now gone to their last rest – the grave.

I drove up that morning with my brother James who accompanied me to the hill – I had splendid sport and bagged 16 brace grouse and returned that night to Olrig!

30th September. I again went up, spending 3 days there before returning having pretty fair sport – but the dog was bad and frequently ran home and left me! I stayed there with a Mr James Henderson who was very kind indeed and the only remaining one of the old friends up there – And now I bid a “for ever” adieu and “good-bye”, to this ancient place of amusement – The moor and Cottage is now gone – sold – – Adieu! Adieu !

my home is accross the sea, 15,000 miles away.

184.   Murkle &c

I now began to tire of Olrig – the cold cold weather added

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greatly to this – to be sure James tried to give me as much amusement as possible – we boated a little also at our old (sea) fishing ground Murkle; there again recollections of happy times long past, again were recalled – when our family circle was unbroken – & when we all joined to spend happy days fishing or bathing at the rocks of Murckle – now all is changed & we must all “fly hence”.

I now engaged my self with building a seat and “shingling” it on top in an octagonal form, quite a novelty in this country – it took me a long time, but now it is finished and is admired by every one. I leave it as a “Memorial”. I also enjoyed some good shooting about the farm – one day I killed 7 hares & 2 brace Partridges –

22d October. I left Thurso in the “Vanguard” steamer: for Aberdeen: but did not arrive there until the 27th

185.   – Aberdeen –

owing to a most terrific gale which first drove us to seek shelter at Longhope in Orkney where we lay for 24 hours:- then passed Wick & Aberdn.

23d – We left the land-locked harbour of Longhope & after a most tempestuous passage arrived at Granton! on the 24th. having to pass two ports of call, Wick & Abdn. The storm was so great that £3000 or £4000 worth of damage was done to new harbour works at the former place, and ships blown from their anchors & wrecked even in harbour, men blown down & killed in the Streets of the latter – we also saw numerous vessels coming into harbour with their bulwarks broken – their sails torn to shreds – &c. &c., a terrible gale it was –

Shortly after arrival I took the train to Aberdeen – the scene of my school and College days – but alas death – the “Grim king” had thinned the ranks too, of these companions of “younger days”, and what escaped had been driven by the blast of adventure & necessity

186.   1864   Inverness –

to seek, like myself, new homes in distant lands –

I spent about three weeks in Abdn. very pleasantly indeed and regretted when I left that I could not extend my visit. But the wheels of time stop not they alas! run on, we mortals must keep with it, the programme must be gone thro’ and in the given time – or we shall be left behind – –

After taking some lessons in Photography from “Wilson of Abdn.”, I left on the 16th. November intending to return soon – the 24th. March DV. Determined to take the train & coach North. Booked for Inverness – fare 1st. class 18/- 4d. Stayed a night there. Some fine buildings here – the Castle about the grandest – Fine suspension bridge on the river Ness, it cost £14,000. Also visited the Caledonian Canal – was surprised to see a large Melbourne ship in it. A great number of ‘locks & gates’ on it – Left for

187.   – White hare shooting –

Edderton in the morning, went through most magnificent scenery – specially near Keith – arrived at Edderton at 4-30, pouring rain – had to walk a mile or so to Mrs. Duff’s house – got bad cold & cough – have hardly been free of it since the hard frosts began – On the 18th. went with Wm. Duff to Tain, drove in gig, pouring

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rain. Tain is a somber like place. Largest building the town house with long spire – of course, the houses are built of gloomy free stone – streets narrow & muddy. Also met a cousin there, Miss In. Duff – drove home after several visits – On the 19th. called on a Mr. Baigrie Fearn, one of the few highland Gentlemen left of the “Good old School” – invited by him to shoot White hares – Accordingly went on the day appointed 21st November. Wm. Duff & I went at the direction of the Keeper & stationed

188.   1864   White Hare

ourselves on top of a very high hill amongst large limestone like rocks. The Keeper was to beat the side of the hill and drive the white hares up – I was quite surprised at my first sight of them – they looked as conspicquous [conspicuous] as sheep. I thought it all the more strange as I was always accustomed to have a great deal of trouble in finding them – but then they were farm hares & twice the weight of these white mountain hares – which always seemed on the move – in fact the hill side seemed covered with them – In due time Duff got to the top of the hill & we took up our stations. I had not long to wait the hares however. I heard the keeper shout (no doubt warning) & then a drove of hares passed – of course I had a “right-&-left” but then what

189.   Shooting –

I lost by not having another gun loaded – dear – dear – I thought I never could get the gun loaded the spring of the powder flash was broken too and the hares passed so close – never mind – I turned my back & finished loading – for I could not do two things at once look at the hares & load – I was even tempted to run for a stone to hit one it came straight up to me – I lost no end of time – Bang – Bang, went the guns – the hill resounded – a hot fire we kept up and no mistake – Shortly the keeper comes up after running out his beat; points us out other stations further on: down he goes again; shout, shout! up come the hares – Bang! bang, bang bang from Duff, then the keeper’s bang – so on – now it was 3 o’c & came on to rain & hail, getting dark and very cold , determined to return. collected our shooting

190.   Mr. Baigrie –

front the various heaps “of slain” at the shooting stations – We had 31! and were only 2½ hours there capital sport – Spent a most pleasant evening with Mr. Baigrie, splendid toddy he had, to be sure and he was the person to give it most liberally to his guests – three tumblers must be taken. “the first for the person – the second for the sport – the third for the good of the house” – I managed to escape tumbler second but not so tumbler third. * Mr. Baigrie like all the Gentlemen of his stamp and age (70) tho’ hale & hearty – entertained us with many old and interesting stories & was much pleased with what I told him of New Zealand & life there. With many thanks for his kindness &c &c we left about 11 o’c

* Mr. Begarie [Baigrie] was a specimen of a class, alas! now nearly extinct – A Highland gentleman of the good old school of chivalry and clanship – Poor Scotland thy best men are taken away & now sheep reign in the glen.

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191.   Wick –

for Edderton. The remainder of that day Wm Duff & I spent strolling along the beach with our gun in hopes of getting some ducks, we met with no success however, as to our disgust we observed a punt with two men & guns, duck shooting – – – Next day I determined leaving.

24th. Booked from Murkle Ferry to Wick (per coach) £1-2, inside Enjoyed first of drive, had dinner at Golspie, passed Dunrobin castle – looks well – near the coast – night comes on dreadfully stormy – wind & rain – came out at Birridas Inn – had some beer – the storm was dreadful arrived at Wick at 11. P.M. – dark & dismal – went to Leith’s Hotel, had supper told Waiter to call me at 4 o’c A.M., for next coach, at 4-30 A.M.

192.   Olrig –

for Thurso. In due time I retired & slept I thought rather long – no one disturbed me – Nevertheless very little wakens me when I expect before going to sleep “to be early up – I heard the tramp of horses out-side – I jumped out of bed – Rang the bell furiously! – no answer – evidently no one up – struck a light – hurriedly dressed – hurried down, just in time to see the driver on the box of coach swearing at delay! “One Moment” I said, he swore, I made a bolt just “saved the coach” & a miserable day in Wick – Sleepyhead of Waiter just appeared with candle in hand & eyes shut or half open – Got to Thurso about 7 o’c A.M. (it was then dark, being Winter) went to bed had breakfast.

Nov 25th. Drove to Olrig about 1 o’c, arrived at 2 o’c, much better of my trip but still having a little cough – Little did

193.   end of 1865 –

I think that that stormy night I spent in coach was the “appointed time” of more than 20 passengers of the ill-fated Str. “Stanley” – The Abdn. & London Boat – On which I had two men going to New Zealand they were fortunately saved however, and if well are now on their way there on the ship “Belgravia” to sail on the 1st. Jany 1865.

N.B. The “Belgravia” with the two men for N.Z. left the Channel about the 8th Jany. 1865 – should arrive in April. (Torbay 13th. Latest news).

I spent the time from the end of Novr. till now, 30th. Decr. very pleasantly, shooting hares principally. And now – as this is the last day of 1864 I cannot do better than give the number I have killed 34 hares 150 grouse 26 Partridges – It is worthy of note that my last, at least, for many a long year, two shots at grouse were wonderfully successful being 1st. a right & left 3 birds – 2d. a right and left 2 fell; five birds bagged with my last 2 discharges.

31 Dec. heavy fall of snow – hope to be tracking hares on New Y. [Year’s] Day, which this year is held on the 2nd Monday.

194.   A New year – 1865

1st. January. 1865. Sunday – this day the first of a new year and a new week opens with a clear sky and a “snow white” earth – How busy memory is on such an occasion! it runs back & the scenes of bygone years are summed up with the “quickness of thought” till it comes to the present, then it is at a stand still as a dog a fault “on scent” – the mind can not see into

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futurity we often wish it could, but prudent thoughts arise – they say “no”, “better not – far better” – then mind stops short, it considers & a small but sterne voice says – “Hitherto shalt thou come but no farther” – Then mind sums up – it hurriedly again glances at the past and says – Oh! how truly “Life is a tangled yarn of joy & Woe”. Impulse then asks, “is it with joy or woe that our cup shall be filled during the year that has just come in”? Mind yet once more answers “Perhaps the cup will be mingled with both, but ask no more or I shall answer

195.   Tracking hares

with the sterne words of our Master, “Hitherto shalt thou come but no farther” – so go thy way and work – think not of tomorrow” –

I must say that although this is Sunday, I once or twice thought of the splendid sport I lost in tracking hares in the snow which was near 6 in [inches] deep! Long indeed since I saw this before – But I went to bed hoping that the next day might be as good.

2d Jan. Still snow on ground. Went out with gun in search of hares and after some tracking I found that the hares were wild, a sure sign of “thaw” or rain, however I killed three –

Next day it rained and the next & the next – then wind and rain Oh! miserable climate. How I long for the clear blue sky & the evergreen trees of my own far off home! Now my time passed long and drear – cold cold cough and cold – I now took to gardening.

196.   1865   Tracking

Not much certainly could be done in the garden – for outdoor work was miserable. Ther. about 30° – starvation! but I had to do something to pass the time: so I took to pruning the apple trees and some of the gooseberry bushes; but this was cold cold work and I gave it up. I then tried Nailing up the Apple trees to the wall, but this was worse still. I then took my gun again. I had good sport at Partridges, bagging 13 to 4 brace a day. I also watched wood pigeons at night in the “little Woody” and would kill generally a couple brace at a time. How I now wished for snow for a “right tracking day” as the old grieve Dunnet expressed it. At length it came on the 20th. Jany and it was a capital day for the job! such sport! I never had better, in this way at least; after tracking the hares a little way I could see their little holes in the snow – then themselves, but I never fired at one of

197.   Hares –

them thus – always let them run for their life – gave them a chance! – a poor one certainly for I don’t think I “missed” one – I took the precaution before leaving to take a man with me to carry them, it was lucky I did for when night came I had a goodly number, nine hares and one rabbit – I had good sport this way during the two days following with nearly as much success – So that the poor people about had a feast of hares. I have killed about 80 during the last two months – my sport however soon came to an end with the snow on 30th. thaw – thaw – wind and rain & horrible “slush”. I may mention the extreme cold of that snowstorm. the Ther. was at 23° in porch at 5 P.M. of 26th.

Feb. 3. Rain, Rain and sleet. I hope for snow again, the only sport I look forward to but none came. No more tracking for me

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for many a day – And the month passed

198.   1865   Man killed

as they all do in this rigorous climate with high Winds, rains and shipwrecks – Now I seldom go out with the gun – partridge Shooting is over and few hares are now to be found. The Octagonal seat I errected in Septr. [September] is not quite finished yet and I spend some of my spare time at it, but the weather is so wet & extremely cold I cannot remain long there – I hurt my chest there however, by pressing it against the handle of a chisel, the effects of which did not go away for near three weeks – –

March 5th. Weather very stormy with very high winds – trees torn from the roots – slates off houses &c. March 9th. A very sad accident. One of the ploughmen on the farm was killed when driving a cart with two horses through a gate – the poor fellow got jammed between the cart & gate post.

199.   I leave Olrig –

Almost immediately he was taken up, but it is believed life was quite extinct even then as he never showed any sign of life afterwards – James & I met the cart with the body at the barns – 1865 March 15th. A beautiful day is this with the birds in the woods singing gayly [gaily] – poor things they lost many of their number during the severe storms of winter (I pick up several dead) James & I went to Hilliday, I showed them there how to strain wire with block & tackle. I also saw the Flexible Harrow at work at Kirkfield & the Amn. Cornrake at the Barns, both of which will make good Colonial implements.

March 17th. 1865 And now the day has arrived when I must again bid adieu to my Native home – how long! Oh how long! “It may be for years, it may be for ever” Happy days have I spent here where I spent in childhood the first days

200.   1865   Aberdeen

of my life. What pleasures and attractions are at home! with its shootings and fishing and old associations. I leave it with regret, but a brilliant and attractive future lies – under God’s direction – before me, and I feel that my path in Life is now smooth and easy, as much so at least as falls to the lot of Mortal Man.

March 18th. Arrived in Aberdeen after a stormy passage, we put into Ackergill Bay on our way up & there took in goods and passengers. Left at 3 P.M. and arrived at 4 A.M. Hotels full. “Adelphi & Forsythes”: went to my old lodgings at 177 Union Street where I now am. Weather very stormy – showers of snow. March 28th. Went to “”Harry Clifton’s” Concert in the Music Hall and that night I shall ever remember as among the happiest in my life – for there I met (saw) one who is very dear to me – And she is pleased to see me at 2 o’c tomorrow.

March 29. James came today by the steamer. An appoint. at 2 o’c.  The meeting of that day I shall never never forget – God directs the future & May He – the All-Wise & Omnipotent direct my course to future happiness. A small momento [memento] I gave, & hope this happy day will not be forgot by one near and dear to me as life. My plans are uncertain & may they be guided

201.   Intend to Sell out in New Zealand

by Him who knoweth what is best for us and our frail state

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March. 30th. How inevitable are the ways of Providence. I believe He has directed me, to fulfill my Mother’s wish and Settle in this Country! Little did I think that my mind should be so changed when I left New Zealand – yet so it is and from this day all my efforts are directed to that end – May I have Divine Aid.

April 1st. Concert at Music Hall – Went there with James & Miss Ross – I shall never forget it for she was there – The pieces recommended are “Soldiers Chorus” & “Chough & Crow” – “Jolly Dogs”, Quad Marriott.

Ap [April] 3d. Left Abdn. 4.15 P.M. for Edinburgh arr. [arrived] at 9.45 P.M. Spent five days here (at the Caledonian Hotel) Weather cold & wet all my efforts are now bent on selling my Run in New Zealand – I think the Hon. A. G. T. will buy it – I must now call on him and see –

Ap 8. Fine left, Ed. [Edinburgh], for London – the country looked well on our way up – ( ten hours to London)

202.   1865   Edinburgh again!

Spent about 3 weeks here – during the time I called with James on Mr. Tollemache and offered my run & 15,000 sheep for £42.000, he was inclined to buy it but I could not press him too much – he shewed us all over their house –

Ap. 12. James & I went to Winsor [Windsor] – fine parks and trees – the Castle also looks well.

do 17th. Dined with Mr. & Mrs. Tollemache. He makes no objection to give me £25,000 clear for my run & 15,000 sheep, but says he does not “see his way” about delivery, he is afraid of “being cheated” if he appoints one in N.Z. to take delivery – So no bargain can be made with him – so I make up my mind to go out by first mail Str. on the 20th. May – After spending a few days here – Going to Crystal Palace Hearing Concerts & seeing Blondin I left for Edinburgh on the May 4th. arrived at 8.30 P.M., next day I saw her pass the window –

May 6 Spent such a happy day at the Exhibition of paintings in Princes St. for She

203.   Botanic Gardens

was there – bowed and was afraid of having been observed!

My [May] 7. Went to Dr. Candlish Church & She was there – did not think much of his preaching.

May 8th. Saturday – Went to the Botanic Gardens, but how shall I express the pleasure of that day for the dear one was there – Yes I met her – & that meeting I can never forget – & the little gift I received & gave – but no more – the time of parting came at length, & I only could see her beyond the door –

10th. Went to Holy Rood Palace – afterwards to the Bazaar – & in coming home, saw her twice! & such a sweet bow, but enough How feeble is Man to direct his ways, how my ideas are now changed, & who could have told me two months ago that this would be. Yet I left all in the Hand of the Allwise Ruler & I feel gratitude for His Merciful direction & I now look forward to great happines [happiness] and speedy or in 12 months to return to settle happily in my native home. May God bless My efforts!

204.   Lawson’s – Edinburgh

13. May Left Edinburgh at 1 o’c for Aberdeen where I arrived at

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8 o’c P.M. went to Royal Hotel – next morning I met my Mother & Brother here. they had just arrived by the North St. [Steamer] during the night. We spent a couple days here, left again on the 15th. where we arrived at Edinburgh –

May 16th. – Fine but rather cold & like rain. Went to Lawson’s Gardens about 2, waited till 3 o’c – & was happily rewarded by meeting her there. We spent about an hour together and Oh! how sweet it was! and we also visited the greenhouses. At length the time of parting came – how hard it is – but perhaps it will make the meeting sweeter – and when will this be – What a happy thought to look forward to! – the happiest man can feel on Earth – I hope that in May next I may again be in my Native

205.   1865   Southampton –

land – and I pray fervently that this hope may be realised – I bade her good-bye, and we mutually pressed the hands which spoke more eloquently to the heart, than any language could express I lingered long behind and was rewarded by a long last look when she entered the door. and this is the last I can see of her for nearly 12 months – – – – – –

May 17 – Arrived in London about 11 o’c A.M., & had to drive to no less than twelve Hotels before getting in. My advice to those intending to visit London is to keep clear of the “West End” Hotels during this month as they are always full – in May people come in shoals to the Queens birthday & Derby day.

” [May] 18. Hot. very warm in City – did a lot of necessary things & left for Southampton

May 19. Went to Kelways Railway Hotel – put luggage to wharf – Band played before the windows tonight. Southn. [Southampton] rather a nice place – last night on those England shore for near 12 months.

206.   On board the “Syria” –

May 20 1865. At length the day has come when I must again bid adieu to Old England but with very different feelings from those of May 1858, when I first left. I now feel as if my task was about being fulfilled & my reward comes – Then I set out as a Stranger to a Strange land. Yet I have had great success, which I altogether owe to a Most Merciful Providence who I believe has now directed me thither to return to my native land and settle with my Mother & Brother: At 11.30 A.M. I embark with James on board the small Str – which in a short time conveyed us on board the Peninsular and Oriental Steamer “Syria”, 450 h.p. – 2000 tons burden. A fine vesel [vessel] indeed. At 3.55 P.M. I heard the order “full speed” – the huge wheels went round – the spray was dashed in to the whitest & most boiling broth & the noble ship

207.   Queens Birthday

with her living freight fast left Southampton water – About 5 o’c the ship’s band came on the quarter deck & played a selection of very fair music – amongst the rest were the “Jolly Dogs” Quadrille Marriott, connected with happy associations of Abdn. At 4 o’c, the bugle sounded for dinner, then we saw all our passengers and a “practiced hand”, might observe how keenly the “knowing ones” eyed their future fellow passengers – Dinner was “first class” Soup – Salmon (fresh) – fowls – turkeys – beef – Mutton &c. – &c. – Stews of all sorts, then Sweets do. Wines – Cheese & Salad – then fruits & wines – At 9 o’c – Grog time – 21. Sunday. Service on board (in Saloon) with band playing the appropriate music.

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24th. In the “Gut of Gibralter” – pretty heavy sea. this is the Queen’s birthday and as I watched the sun set far out at sea – firey & red I asked myself – where I should be next Queen’s Birthday – I don’t know but hope & trust near home.

208.   1865   Malta

May 25. At Gibralter – Rock capped with mist – lay by a coal-hulk about a mile off shore – smashed our boat when leaving at 9 o’c heat getting rather oppressive 75° in shade. made Brodie’s Acquaintance – Five days out.

” [May] 27. passed the island of Galita – very warm and close – heavy dews almost approaching to rain – ladies played quoits tonight on deck –

” [May] 29. Went ashore at Malta – The heat & the dassling [dazzling] whiteness of the stone, which the city & forts are built of, is most oppressive. saw the vast forts – the Palace & the church of St. Johns, the most wonderful marble (in Mosaic work) from every part of the world – In the Palace, the most ancient armour is to be seen with statues of the Knights of Malta. One Cannon I saw there was said to be the first ever used, it consisted of a Copper tube rolled round with rope & tarred – it looked quite like a modern gun. I also saw a helmet there of one of the knights which

* The traveller should make a point of taking Carticle visits of the places he is travelling in: if not, he will regret as long as he lives –

209.   continued

was almost too heavy to lift! – Visitors at Malta have the opportunity of picking up some rare curiosities, such as most wonderfully neat silver ornaments (curiosities) – Gold Maltese crosses & Maltese lace, which is very famous for its wonderful fineness – it comes from the Island of Goa – some sixteen miles distant from Malta and is worked by Nuns in the Convents there – The women here are very pale & dress peculiarly – in black-gown & coif over back & head – We left at l o’c , were surrounded by small boys diving for coppers – it was indeed wonderful how far down they went & caught the copper in their mouths – Indeed one dived right below the St. (which drew 18 ft water) and came up on the other side. A pleasant trip it is down the Mediterranean in June – sea smooth & heat not oppressive, numerous birds – hawks – pigeons & swallows settled on the ship, one of the former & latter were caught.

210.   Alexandria –

* Little did I then think that the inhabitants here & along my route would die of cholera at the rate of 1000 per day June 1st. At 8 o’c P.M. we moored in the harbour of Alexandria which was indeed difficult to approach owing to coral reefs which could be removed if the Pasha would allow it – he fancys these are a protection from invasion & will not allow them be touched. There were a goodly number of ships there – amongst them was one of the Pasha’s yachts – one an iron Str. of 30 guns – I landed with some of my fellow passangers [passengers] about 8 o’c at night – Streets were nasty damp & dirty & very narrow & uneven – the shops! were mere pigeon holes – crammed with fruits & vegetables of all sorts & the Egyptian Merchant with his long pipe (fully 1 yd long) squatted in the midst of this confusion, vending his wares – In passing down some other of the streets I observed it

Page 40

lined with these men of the long pipes & armed with scymitars [scimitars] & wearing huge turbans. But there were plenty Policemen or Janisaries there to keep order, armed to the teeth & dressed in white. I also saw Cleopatra’s needle and Pompey’s Pillar. I also had a glass of beer at the

* Alexandria to Cairo   162 miles = 7 hours
Cairo to Suez   90 miles – 5
Total   252   12

211.   1865   Nile Valley

Caffe, which was of course outside (accompanied with music). We left for the Str at 9 o’c & had a great row with the boatmen before leaving.

June 2d. We left for Cairo by the 9 o’c: train and arrived there at 3 oc – 98 miles – Our trip by the train here was rather pleasant on the whole, although at times we were almost choked with fine dust. After loosing sight of Alexandria with its fine Palaces & Mosques we entered on the “fertile Valley of the Nile” & travelled it for more than 100 miles – Here we saw fruit trees of all kinds – the date – the pomgranate with its blood red blossoms – the orange &c &c and the stately date palm – the people here seemed very industrious – irrigation being their chief employment – this they did in various ways – One way was by a deep sunk well which had a pilliar [pillar] about 4 ft high over it. A long bamboo with bucket fixed to cord at one end with weight at the other was placed in the hotch [notch] of the pilliar, this drew the water which was emptied into little troughs which ran in almost regular

* Strings of 200 camels in single file are here to be seen with their loads & the natives & water buffalo, a sort of cow, cramming themselves into every little pool.

212.   1865   Cairo

parallel lines through their plantations which were chiefly cotton – maise [maize] – or wheat –

Another way of irrigation I observed – they drove their Ox – Camel or donkey (2) round setting in Motion a large wheel with buckets which raised the water to the troughs on the principal of the Steam dredge used for cleaning harbours &c. The Egyptian Villages were also very curious – mere mud huts – (sun-dried mud bricks) formed a wretched hovel without any pretention to a roof & those that had it were quite flat. I believe rain only falls there about once in the year. They are indeed wretched hovels with Mosques (with round tops) for worship here & there. After travelling through this “land of Goshen” we came to Cairo about 3 o’c P.M., the heat and dust & flies here was something dreadful – 95° in shade 5 P.M.! Some fine buildings here –

Next day June 3 we formed a party of thirteen & left at 5 o’c A.M. for the pyramids – All on donkeys – We proceeded thus three miles through the town & then came to the Nile which we crossed. (we in one boat & the Donkeys in another)

213.   The Pyramids –

when we got over – the sun had just risen & begun to throw his red light on the lofty date palm trees. After riding thro’ some most fertile country – All irrigated of course, we came pretty near the Pyramids which looked remarkably pretty on this fine

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morning – At length we came to the foot & were there waited by numbers of dusky cut-throat like Arabs to be taken up, but most of our party were quite satisfied with the sight of them & would not go up. I however went up – two Arabs held me by the hand – lending me timely assistance in the climbing of the steps which cannot be less than 3 ft high (each of course) – I think it took me about 20 min. hard work to ascend. When on top I rested & wrote my name in the soft stone, which is soft as chalk but cream color. When there an Arab offered to run down and ascend the other one which was about 300 yds from the foot in the space of 10 minutes – I timed him with my watch & in less than the time stipulated he was at the top of the other! – London time – (ascent 5.5 A.M. Descent 5.30)

214.   The Desart [Desert]

(for I had not altered my watch)

Sat: June 3d. 1865. On top of Pyramid at 5 to 5 A.M.

Our descent was much easier, we descended and had lunch. Saw the Sphynx [Sphinx] – remounted our Donkeys – had now a dusty hot ride – the sun being now fully risen – We all had umbrellas without which some of our party must have got sun-stroke or be choked with dust – which latter was even then the case. Maise & pumpkins grew by the way most luxuriously – We had returned to Cairo by 1 o’c P.M., the distance there and back being only about 16 miles. In the evening I took another ride on the Donky [Donkey] – & bought some curiosities – I also saw the Mosque where Mahommet Alley [Mohammed Ali] is buried. At the time I saw it – there was a poor Arab boy almost dead shoved in below the dome above the coffin, in the hope of virtue coming from the spirit of the illustrious dead & going into the poor boy! On the 4th. We left Cairo for Suez – Quite a Desert journey & most disagreable – the Sand – Dust & heat were like to “dish” or cook us completely. After passing through about 90 miles of this sandy desert we came to Suez.

* Cairo to Suez – 90 miles – 5 hours

215.   Suez –

Amongst the most wonderful sights we saw on this part of our journey, is the deceptive & ever fleeting Mirage, like a vast lake glittering in the sunshine. Such a complete imitation of a sea or lake with islands, I could hardly believe possible – It is also most beautiful the forms & hill like shape the sand is driven into – it put me in mind of some of the Mountain scenery in Scotland – & these sand hills also are ever changing – There also seemed impassable mountains in the desart as well as on land – We stopped at a few miserable stations on the way & had a little refreshment in the way of bread & cheese and beer – We arr. at Suez about 3 oc P.M., & after having a miserable dinner for which they charged 6/-, & here is the Company’s Office where we have our letters directed, I strolled thro’ the town but there was nothing in it worth seeing – only a few basaars [bazaars] – I saw the great Sirocco from here travelling like a great great thunder cloud over the desert. We embarked on board a little steamer at 6 o’c, which took us to the P. & O. Str “Simla” which takes us on to Ceylon. She lay 3 miles out from shore. * Much of the sand is moted with a delicate crust of Saltpetre –

216.   1865   Simla

June 5th. On board the Simla, sailing down the Red Sea at the

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rate of 11 knots an hour – Dreadfully warm – light things are the order of the day – & nothing at all at night! not so comfortable the boats on this side the Isthmus (which are all screws) bad bad food & wine with insects & rats in Cabins. Breakfast 1½ hour earlier & “lights out” ditto – 10.30 P.M. – The heat is very great but a nice draught is made by the Punkahs which are kept going in the Cabin – I often pity the poor Punkah boys who are kept pulling them from morning to night. The Ship’s Crew (not Officers) are all Colored Lascars. White men could not stand the heat, the fire-men & Engineers must have hot work (The temp. in Engine room is 150°). In 2 days expect to arr. at Aden. One fireman has just been carried on deck in a fit – I am told this often occurs, & they never “last” over two voyages – Very very Warm 92° in shade, meats bad – Wines bad: flies cockroaches & Ants abound – I never intend to go this route again & The “Simla” is the largest ship of the P & O Co – 2440 tons & 630 horse power.

217.   Aden

I would certainly recommend no one to do so unless they had some important object to attain.

June 9th. Landed at Aden about 4 o’c P.M. What miserable creatures were the Natives that came around our ship, without any hair – almost naked – and certainly (evidently) very low in the scale of creation – there paddles were curiously shaped thus Aden is very barren and bleak, it consists of abruptly rising – sharp pointed rocks (destitute of any vegitation [vegetation]), but these are strongly fortified and grim guns peer out every now & then I took a car after landing & drove to the town & tanks thro’ a regular tunnel (but open at top) through the rock, I should say 30 ft deep – the town is not large & consists principally of barracks & stables for the native troops which are mostly cavalry. After seeing the town I went to “the Tanks” most extraordinary wells & ponds hewn out of the solid rock, all with steps down & a few gardens well laid off, the soil for which was taken from

* The tanks were made by the British Govmt. [Government] to supply the town & troops with water – originally begun by the Romans

218.   1865   Leave Aden –

Bombay! there is none at Aden * – I next bought Ostrich feathers – they were very beautiful – & two large eggs. I left as the Moon was rising which gave a beautiful view as it tipped the sharp pointed rocks with its golden color – it shone prettily thro’ the archway – After this I, with the other passengers whom I met playing “pool” at an Hotel there, embarked again but it was so warm & close that we could not sleep – I may say that the Natives are said to be the descendants of Cain and are positively disgusting to look at – walking skeletons – the troops played “Garry Owen” as we arrived! All dressed in white. Left June 11th. Next day encountered the South West Monsoon. We saw the “Southern Cross” two nights ago (7th) 10° North latitude June 12th. Alarmed by the engines stopping but after half a day’s delay they were got right – Ther 84° shade * The Natives are tall walking Skeletons, no calves on their legs like the Austin Blacks, are said to be the descendants of Cain.

219.   Ceylon

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June 18th. Arrived at Point de Galle this morning after having a week’s pleasant steaming from Aden. Landed about 11 o’c A.M. after having first put my small things for Cabin on board the Australian Steamer “Jeddo” – which was lying close beside us – After this we formed a party & drove some 5 miles out of town to magnificent Palm tree gardens called Wank-Wallah-Bungalo – most fertile indeed is the island, every tree here is of the richest green notwithstanding the very great heat – for being in the tropical regions – heavy showers fall from time to time. After enjoying a magnificent drive through Palm trees – date & Cocoanut [Coconut] – Pomgranite – Bread-fruit – Orange – Banana – Mango and other trees – Sugar cane & Bamboo, all beautifully green we arrived at the hill in the gardens which commands

220.   1865   Waka – Wala – Bungalo –

a beautiful & extended view and on which is a refreshment house, with verandah, chairs &c for the use of travellers. but here, as elsewhere, we were beset with the natives trying to vend their wares which chiefly consisted in what they called “precious Stones” & “Diamonds”: the traveller must here be on his guard. They will ask 30/- for a very pretty like stone – You say you will give 5/-, of course as a joke (until you know them) never thinking you will be called upon to pay – Yet the Native says very coolly “you take it” – You also meet lots of beggars or little boys who have climbed trees for your amusement then pestring [pestering] you for money & saying “very good gentleman”. After enjoying the view for a few hours – Saw country with a large river & lots of snipe

221.   The drive –

shooting & a distant view of the Sinamon gardens – we again got into our car & drove towards town – The Roads are very good though narrow. We passed through a lot of rice cultivations, which presented the appearance of very long grass say about 2 ft. 6, growing as it were out of a pond, it is kept constantly irrigated. We also went out (walked in the burning Sun, very foolishly) to private gardens – where we saw amongst other trees the Cinnamon & the Nutmeg: it was curious to see on this latter the mace wrapped round the fruit – quite red. Here we also saw the Pineapple grow, it does not form a tree, only grows about 2½ ft high. The owner of the Gardens came out and caused a dish of mangoes to be handed round to each of us. We then went to

222.   1865   The Natives –

the “Fruit-market”. Here all manner of fruit was to be had, Oranges – Pumals – Banana – Mango – Sugar-Cane was to be had in abundance. I think the finest is the Mango with the large stone in the centre and the next the Banana or Plantain which fruit grows in a long curved form like a new moon. The Natives (Singalese) are a very fine like race, having very intelligent countenances, fine black eyes with a magnificent head of jet black hair which grows as long as that of a European woman * : it is curious to see how active they are in going up the trees – they form a loop or ring & cast it on their ankles to keep their feet together & ascend the tree by a series of jumps – Galle is not a large town but does a large business with the shipping (Five of the Peninsula

* Their lips & teeth are quite red from their constantly chewing

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the “Betel Nut” –

223. Curiosities &c.

and Oriental Steamers being there when we left – The Streets have the Common fault of all the Oriental towns that I have seen of being very very narrow – said to be so to keep off the great heat of the sun, all have heavy verandahs, resembling porches with heavy pillars – A few curiosities can be picked up here – & at reasonable prices (if one knows how). If one does not, let him lay down the rule “never to give more than half what he is asked” – & even then he may be cheated – I got some Chinese curiosities, & knife handles &c &c made from Elephants’ teeth – Also fans. There are some very good Hotels here & the charges moderate & the fare good – Chiefly curries & fruit – the former being very very good! & not too strong. 12/- a day is the current charge for board – There are some nice walks about Galle which looks to the sea & a lighthouse which I visited

224.   1865   Coaling – &c

Before leaving this steaming hot place I must take notice of the natives who worked on the wharfs coaling these Steamers. If ever we wondered how people can exist under certain circumstances – these are certainly deserving of that wonder – There they are, tall naked wretches, with only a turban on their head & a hankerchief round their loins & hips quite black, working in the burning sun – loading cargo boats, with the coal which makes them still blacker – & the fine dust flies in every direction. After the boat is pretty deep, they walk out to her up to their armpits with a bag of this coal – then all get in & the savage freight makes their way to the Steamer – The little boats or “Cat-a-Marans” of

225.   Leave Galle –

the natives are very curious made out of a large Cocoanut tree with top frame lashed to it & having huge out-riggers – Paddles are thus (sketches of paddles)

June 21st. Left Galle at 6 o’c P.M. with our decks regularly groaning under the weight of coal – Now we can see that we have a nasty little dirty ship – with bad food & bad attendance – we are also like to be smothered with heat below & can’t open our ports as the ship is so low in the water that the sea would come in.

June 22d. 1865 Crossed the Line – this morning – Only four days more than a year since I crossed it last which was on the 18th. June 1864. I expect it will be in April of next year that I will again cross it for the fourth & last time.
28th. a poor negro got his hand

* I now believe it will be about the same time I will cross it this fourth and last time March 25 1866.

226.   Out of the Tropics

taken off by the engine this morning. I heard him cry most pitifully on “Allah” “All-ah” – “All-ah”! It seems he believes he is sure to go to the worst place because he now must eat meat with his left hand – the right being the one that the engine took of –

July 1st. 1865 After eight days of strong head winds – and most disagreeable steaming – hot Cabin weather – we at length have a

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change – the weather now is moderately cool & the punkahs are taken down – the water is no longer iced, in fact we now get hot water sent in at night, & a blanket is now put on our beds! Warm clothing is also put on and I no longer see men go about in white or light dressing. Our ports were opened today for the first time! since leaving Galle. We are now out of the Tropics

227.   The “Overland route”

being as far south as 27°

July 5th. 1865 In S Lat: 32°. E. Lon. [East Longitude] 110° – 290 miles from Cape Leeuwin – it is 150 from K. [King] Georges Sound & which is 1230 miles from Melbourne. Very fine day played “Bull” with the Captain (Farqhar) & Purser Bailey –

I must now speak a word while It is fresh in my memory of the advantage or disadvantage of travelling by this route (“overland”). I set it down as a decided great nuisance – & only fit to be used by a business man or a pleasure seeker who wants to see the route! – There are no less than 12 transhipments between Southampton & New Zealand – The Passenger has to be on 9 Steamers!! – vis. Small one at Southn. 1. Large one to Alexandria 2. Small do. there 3. Small do at Suez 4. Large do. to Galle 5. Large do to Melbourne 6. small do. at Melbourne 7. N.Z. Str 8. Napier Str (Otago Well [Wellington] & Canterbury) 9.! Now for stoppages & coaling which is an awful job in the hot weather with the

228.   The “P. and O.” nuiscance [nuisance]

No. [Number] of stoppages – coaling & transit – Gibralter c 1. Malta c 2. Alexdia. [Alexandria] t 3. Cairo t 4. Suez t 5. Galle t 6. K. [King] George’s Sound 7. Melbourne 8. Otago 9. Wellington 10. – Canterberry [Canterbury] 11 – arr [arrive] at Napier 12. Between Southampton & New Zealand, the passenger by the P. & O. has to submit to ten detensions [detentions], and be on nine different Steamers, a very great drawback to this route certainly – then he is nearly all the way like to be broiled with natural & artificial heat – that from the engines being often something alarming – then we have always (by this route) 8 days of trade winds to contend against – Also the danger of the engines breaking down, as has occurred on the four previous trips! (I hope we will not make the fifth).

July 8th. Landed at King George’s Sound. Cloudy day & like [light] rain – there

* Chief town & Coaling Station of the Company is called Albany.

229.   1865   King George’s Sound –

is a very good harbour here & all the labour of the place is done by convicts – there are a few neat little houses here but the country seems extremely scrubby & barren – indeed all the vegetation for 100 miles inland is of such a poisonous nature that no animals can be kept (loose) under that distance. This settlement is part of Western Australia of which Perth is the Capital – A high hill covered with shrubs, & rocks commands a view of some 100 miles interior – I with some of the others of our party climbed this hill & was amply rewarded by the fine view – the harbour on one side & the country which seems heavily wooded on the other with the blue mountains in the background. The soil is very sandy & soft, one can hardly walk a yard without being up to ankles in sand. (2 leaves over)

232.   1865  Melbourne!

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I bought some flower seeds from there for which the island is famous & also the dried flowers of the same.

July 8th. At 6 P.M. We left the Sound encountring a tearing east wind “dead – a head” – Ship rolling heavily – At the Sound we left the Adelaide mails & took in about 500 tons coal.

There was a large ship – the “Rock light” in harbour when we came in – a mutiny had been on board the morning before – one man killed, & two wounded – The Mate is found guilty of murder & the Cptn. [Captain] of Manslaughter.

July 11th. fine – Nine hundred miles from Melbourne.

July 14 Off Cape Otway about 11 o’c tonight. We burned blue lights & fired rockets for about half an hour, by which time we were duly answered by the Signal Man on shore who duly telegraphed us to Melbourne – said news would arrive there in about 5 minutes –

July 15th. Arrived in Hobson’s Bay – landed at Sandridge pier and drove a distance of nearly 5 miles to Melbourne –

233.   Brighton Beach

It is difficult for me to describe my feelings when I found myself quietly seated in the “Humminn’s Hotel” after my most varied journeyings of the past two months – Suffice to say I found so satisfied & thankful to be so near my journey’s end that I determined to enjoy a fortnights repose before again “beginning the end” on the remainder of the voyage – the passage to New Zealand – The weather was very cold and wet, during which time I caught rather a severe cold, which continued almost all the time I stayed in Melbourne. On the 20th. I took train to “Brighton” & foolishly expected to see somthing resembling its namesake in England – instead of which I only saw a bleak sea beach, suited well I have no doubt to the health of the Melbourne people – (Skip 2 leaves)

236.   1865   Otago –

The Melbourne people deserve great credit for there perseverence in excelling in amuzements [amusements] Science or Education – I visited some of their Public institutions. A public library – Museum of mines & Agriculture – Botanic gardens & Zoological do – Aclimatication [Acclimatisation] do – Model farm – Cricket – Race & foot-ball grounds – the latter game I happened to see; it excited great amusement. I also went to Flemington & saw the Sale yards for the benifit [benefit] of my farming knowledge! Sales are held there twice a week – 10,000 sheep & 500 cattle is the general supply for the weekly consumption of the town. After collecting a few curiosities, and after a rest of nearly three weeks, I took my ticket (£10) per “Alhambra” for Otago, N. Z. –

4th. Aug – Left for New Zealand at 4 o’c P.M., arr. at Bluff harbour on the 9th., After a rather fine but chilly passage of 5 days – We landed here – a miserable place – ankle deep in Sand – with strong gales always blowing. The Southland people would like no doubt to “go a head” very fast! as the sight bankrupt! railway informed strangers – the carriages look very deserted pulled upon the beach – being seized by the Contractor, for the job!

237.   Napier!

Aug. 10th. arr. at Port Calmers [Chalmers], blowing hard of course as it had been when I was there in March last year – I left for Dunedin in a small stern wheel steamer, and after spending a few

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hours there, I took passage on board the “Lady Bird” £12, for Napier – After a run of 19½ hours arrived at Lyttleton. Stayed a night at Christchurch and left for Napier via Wellington At 12 o’ c I here parted with one of my fellow passengers – at least from Marseilles – a Cpt. Shephard: he is from a place called Kirk-ville near Aberdeen, his Uncle is named Craigie who went to Canada and bought some petroleum wells, he (Shepherd) is related to the Lumsdens –

13th. Arr. at Wellington now the seat of Government.

15th. Left here for Napier via Castle-point, where I arrived on the 16th. landed next day where I was surprised to learn with what eagerness the news was received (from me in England) of my intention to sell out & I now find how fortunate I was in not doing so there to Mr. Tollemache as I have now every chance of realizing from £8,000 to £10,000 more. And now, after 16 months absence I have returned again to the land which is not now the one of my adoption but has certainly dealt well to me.
(3 leaves over)

243.   At the Station

Aug 20th 1865

Arrived today at the Station via “Havelock” – thankful for having come thus far to my journeys end – Much have I yet to do – and some “knocking – about too”, before my journey is entirely at an end but with health and my present happy prospects these little troubles will soon pass – I now viewed the “Old Place” with great pleasure, where my first battle with the World began in earnest – The improvements too that were done in my absence gave a very chereful [cheerful] look to the place which was all a “Wilderness” when I came 7 years before. indeed I viewed the place with a little pride when I thought of the “Wild Country” which I had succeeded in making so valuable for I began with about £8,000 now after 7 years I can realise about £33.000 ! ! Up to the end of the month I engaged myself in putting my “house in order” – repapering – painting & carpeting & James Smith gave me great assistance

244.   Station Work &c

as well as improving the look of the garden which had almost all “gone to weeds” – New Walks were made and gravelled – Indeed the Bullock Dray was kept for nearly a week at this –

Sept 6 Went to Napier. great news – the “Hau-Haus” are getting beaten in all directions. The “St Kilda” Govt. St. came in today with no end of the enemys’ flags flying which our men had taken from them at Poverty Bay – Splendid climate this – how I enjoy it!

Sept. 9th. Great work papering the house and poor James Smith, doing great work in the “improving racket” – papering his room &c 12th. Had “flexible harrow” working on face of hill putting in grass seed – splendid job –

14th. Visited boundry fence with Herrick

15th. Renata (Maori Chief) came today and renewed the lease of “Native Reserve”. I also layed the foundation of Wool-Press – Blue clay & Blocks on sleepers – well rammed –

245.   1865   Continued –

Set up the Wool-Press – we used two blocks. the Press is a splendid job – we also baled hay & sheep skins in it – Up to the

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end of the month I was engaged in improving the Woolshed – making an enterance [entrance] from the Old one to the new one – fixing wool-bins and preparing the same for shearing. How I long till it is over !

Oct 16th. Rode out on “Run” and discovered a number of thistles, dug them all up, 297! (on Kohai Scrub) & burned what remained! James Smith busy making “a dam” in the garden

18th. The Pig-dog & Cattle-dog got away. was out all day on the run with the gun looking for them, also had out Manson, Waters & Hector Duff. Shot the 2 dogs at 7 A.M. next morning!

21st. Gathered ferns with A. Duff in Kereru Bush

23d. Snow on the Rua-hinia [Ruahine] Mountains

246.   Limestone Caves &c

went to the “Sheep Paddock” Gully & made some additions to my collection of ferns. 27th. Perfect Hurricane – sky black with dust – impossible to stand outside! – much damage

Oct 28. Went with James Smith to a Bush on McLeans Run near Salisbury Plain & made some valuable collections of ferns – shot 2 brace Pigeons and 1 brace Kaka

Oct 30th. Went to Wakaperu [Whakapirau] Bush – gathered some ferns – stayed at Cpt. McLean’s tonight

31st. Beautiful morning – went with Cpt. McLean to the “Limestone Caves” taking with us candle – hammer – chisel 2 bags &c. Went into 4 caves, the first we entered was about a mile in length & most magnificently hung with Stalactites – we took away a goodly number of very pretty specimens which I intend taking home – as well as of some petrified moss we also found on a rock.

Nov 4th. Went with James Smith to “Black Birch” Gully near Bones’ Warre [Whare]

247.   1865   Mustering &c

prospected and found numerous curiosities – fossils & black shale with ironstone. I believe this shale immediately overlies the coal!

Nov. 8. Began mustering for docking – Mustered “Outstation hill” found the entire skeleton of a Saurian Reptile Lizard I believe, in Bk. flat Creek.

Nov 10th. Mustered “Green Hills” and “Horse Paddock” – met about 30 of Waker’s bullocks camped in the “Manuka valley”: gave him notice not to camp there again – much to their (the Drivers consternation

11th. Went to Nguroro [Ngaruroro] river bed with A. Duff and found 17 gull’s Eggs

Nov 13th. A Most magnificent day – I went up the offside Of Mungatahi [Maungatahi] Creek in the morning : as I stood on the range about 10 o’c and viewed the sky all round, I could not see a cloud or indication of one. it was burning hot, perhaps the heat was as great as I found it some months ago at Ceylon – but the Sun had not the same burning fierceness that it has in

248.   1865   Docking

the Tropics. Notwithstanding it was quite hot enough to make me glad of the shelter of a friendly “Cabbage Tree” that stood close by & moreover took the top of it with me, carrying it over my shoulder (shading my head) & carrying it thus all the way home!
Novr. 22d Finished docking – we had dreadfully dusty work of it – yet I need not complain of the trouble as my percentage was

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higher than any of my neighbours 105 pct [per cent].! – we docked 5,000 Lambs & perhaps we have 1000 yet to dock.

Nov 25. Engaged 15 Maoris & 1 white man to shear my sheep terms 25/- per hundred, the Shearers to find themselves in Wood Water, Grub & Cook – Afterwards went up the Kohai Scrub with “Jim” & down the Reserve, cutting thistles all the way

249.   Eel Fishing

Nov 30 Very windy – “Jim” & myself raked up some Prairie grass seed – it was indeed done under difficulty and I promised “Jim” if I took the seed home, to remember our raking it, the heat & Wind.

Dec 2d. Beautiful day – “Jim” and myself went to fish eels at the Creek. I think I shall never forget the scene this night presented. The Moon rose about 9 o’clock nearly full & threw her pale but bright light in silver streaks across the running creek looking like a flow of silver – our two camp fires also added to the beauty of the scene & the light of the moon falling on sharp peaks & valleys close by – then As we approached the house, the lights there in seemed very bright & the house (painted white) seemed like Oriental town

250.   1865   Muster for Shearing

My Companion (J.S.) admired the scene! he said it put him in mind of Old times long since past when “his mates” or diggers used to be camped below & he above would “Cooe” & those below would “Cooe” & say “Ye have been quick back man” “Come down to get a share of the gold”. Of course the Digger “above ” was away for provisions.

11th. Dec. Began to Muster for Shearing – took Black Flat & out Stn. [Station] Hill today –

12th. took Green Hills & Horse Paddock.

13th. Took the sheep down to Aorangi Flat today. Bullock Drays in the way! at the Reserve

14th. Very warm – Dug a well & found water! Maoris came tonight

15th. Begun Shearing today 16 maoris & one white man pressed

251.   Shearing

5 bales Wool the new press works very well, but I think something is wrong

17th. Made a great “row” with the Maoris for shearing badly – they all threatened to leave – I said “all right go” – but they stopped & I had good shearing afterwards & had also to put the White man (D. Stewart) away & the Maoris did much better after he left!

25th Dec. (Christmas day) Fine day – 62 Bales pressed & I am not yet half done shearing – What thoughts the return of this day recalls – how the mind wanders back & forward – back to the others we have spent & forward speculating on the probability of how the succeeding ones will

252.   1865   XMAS 1865

be spent. I believe this is the last I will spend in New Zealand Poor James Smith went off today to Melbourne – he was in very bad health – he went to see the doctor – I sent Manson down with him to go across the Nguroro river at any rate – There is nothing particular to mark the way in which I have spent this day – I have allowed all the Shearing hands (about 20) to take their

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holliday & stopped shearing, some races are going on at McLean’s – I believe some of them go down there. For myself there is little to note in the Xmas here – I worked at the Wool-Press today making an extra handle

253.   Xmas day

enlarging the holes for the press.

We had green peas – new potatoes & gooseberries & rasps [raspberries] & apricot & peach pie to dinner – this seem strange things to have on Xmas, but this is New Zealand – I also went to the place described in the picture I gave some one before leaving “bonnie Scotland”, and I know who will be looking at it on that day. so I felt very happy when I visited the spot – Xmas here is only marked by men getting drunk and making beasts of themselves – One of the Shearing hands returned from McLean’s, where were some races held, with his head all bruised and blue & bound up in a napkin – he had been fighting. Also a poor boy there was nearly killed by a horse running into the one he rode – the owner of course being drunk – sad – sad-

254.   New Years day –

Jany 1st. 1866. The first day of a new year has dawned – what may be in store for me before this year is ended – many changes – All marching on – on .. whither ? –

* New Year’s day is not “kept” in the Colonies. * no notice whatever of it is taken – we were as busy today as any other day – shearing & drafting – &c, I am pretty busy with it all & will not be sorry when it is over. I must be every where almost at the same time. At the dfting [drafting] yard. at the Shearers. At the Rolling table. At the Wool-press. At the Branding yard & sewing corners of bales. &c. Besides this a supply of water has to be carted from the Creek to the house & I have to see that this is regularly taken up or the first intimation of its not being so is a growl of “nothing to drink” from the men.

4th. Finished for the present. Branded 122 Bales Wool – The Maori

* Except by those who drink the Xmas into the New Year, and this is what they call “keeping both X & New Year’s day”!

255.   Shearing &c –

shearers are quite “done up” – they want to cut their Wheat. so I let them off until Friday when we hope to be at it again. The Wool-Press is now working well – the only thing being the matter was the revolving axle going a little out of level – McLean & Tuke came up to see it on N Y D [New Year’s Day]. I hope to have about 70 Bales yet & have an offer for my run by the end of the month if the English Mail comes in.

Jan 7th. first Sunday of the year – where shall I spend the first of 1867 – I suppose in my own house with my own Dear lovely One by my side. but then it will be cold, frost and snow – here it is warm, warm –

I forgot to mention that there is a detachment of 20 men stationed 1 mile from here! watching the movements of the “Hau Haus”, under Lieut. Tuke who was here today & gave me a “greenstone” Geological name “Jade”.

256.   1866   Shell Excursion

Jany 9th. Very warm and dry, indeed the vegetation is quite

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parched and red and in the evenings you can find the burnt smell of the fern – grass &c – Animals are suffering much from the drought and want of rain tho’ on this run there is still “plenty feed”. Sheep are very low in price in consequence, but this is only a temporary affair – Today I determined to go on a Shell excursion and make more collections to take home. Accordingly Hector Duff & myself rode up “Black Flat Creek” where they most abound in the clay formation up there – When more than half up and passing through some pretty thick scrub I was nearly meeting with an accident which was

257.   Shearing

nearly proving serious – A branch of dead hard Wood almost quite concealed with leaves ran quite into my leg above the knee taring [tearing] the trousers up near to the thigh but only making a slight wound of about 3 in. long – When the horse found this resistance he made a bound forward and knocked me quite off the saddle & nearly off his back – but fortunately I managed to hold him until I shook the Tree free – we got a goodly collection of shells on this trip.

11th. Made a Sleigh & fitted water cask for fetching water from Creek.

12th. Begun shearing again, the Maories [Maoris] however are sadly done up – – They were for three days after they left here speechlessly drunk!

258.   1866   Shearing ended!

15th. Have branded 135 bales – however wrote Douglass regarding sale of run &c – I wonder if he will be the purchaser and the date of sale – I think the 20th. Feb.

Jany 19th. This heat is really dreadful for New Zealand. Today the Country is dark with smoke, the sky has a lurid glare & the hot wind comes in gusts heated as out of a furnace – hot work shearing, it makes one suffer very much from thirst & one fancies to be able to drink even the Sea dry!

20th. Finished shearing – Branded 164 Bales, and expect to shear nearly 1000 sheep at next drafting – Rain set in very heavily in the evening shewing how fortunate I am in being now done – and this is one milestone passed on the road home! – next to pass is the sale of run which I think will take place during the next fortnight! We have had Maori Shearers & truly there has been

259.   Maori peculiarities

very little trouble with them. They did not come near the house but camped in a Creek close by the Woolshed but out of sight of the dwelling house – Here I must not omit to mention that they used frequently to indulge in a song I call “Selected from the Wild Boar of New Zealand adapted to the Natives of the Country”! It is prefaced by a long guttural noise or more through the nose – then comes a guttral [guttural] breathing (both ways) which gradually increases “Eh-hae-Eh-he Eh-hae-Eho-Haey-ah! last word very loud – this is the Chorus! in which all join in savage yell – & in singing this – they shake & tremble hands & legs – roll their eyes – making their hands & fingers tremble & still keeping a sort of time. They keep always merry saluting the shepherds &c with “Hillo! Pakeha!” or “Hilloa! Soldier”. They like to dress gaudily if possible – with red braid down the sides of

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their trousers or white do. round their hats & over their shoulders imitating soldiers.

260.   1866   Maori Customs –

They make their women work hard – generally cooking or carrying immense burdens of firewood : here they merely cooked & carried water to them in a calabash from the creek up a very steep hill. They (the women) also shear sheep! I saw three women shearing here at one time, & though I did not like to stop them, I did wish to so. They however soon did so of themselves only shearing one or two in a day – In giving the men a drink they go the round of all with the Calabash – The Maori lifts his head from shearing – holds his mouth open & the “Waihine” [Wahine] pours it in – they (the women) also tie up the Men’s hair in knots with pack thread or flax if it falls in their eyes when the head is bent shearing!

21st Jany 1866 Sunday – Heavy rain set in last night & continues this morning which is a great blessing.

261.   Mustering of “Stragglers!”

Finished shearing last night, branded 165 Bales, but expect 10 more bales from sheep that are still out.

What splendid rain has now set in – it lasts a week and the grass seems to grow by inches! I am now making a collection of some very pretty stones that readily take a fine polish, I wonder if they will be admired at home, surely some of them will.

Jan 29th. Began to muster the sheep again. (O when will this sheep work be over, how I long till then!)

I with McLeod, Waters & Manson mustered first the “Green Hills” taking all the sheep into the “Horse Paddock”, then took the “Disputed Ridges” & took all that mob into the yard that night. It had a fine effect seeing & hearing that great multitude coming along on that fine Moonlight night – they seemed like a living travelling cloud; the steam rising off them like an immense cloud of white canvass! home by 11 oc P.M.

30th. Drafted the rough sheep out & camped the remainder of mob on “Reserve”.

31st. Took them all in today – drafted & turned them out have about 1500 to shear.

262.   1866 – Finished shearing

Feb 1. The maori Shearers came last night and we began early this morning

3d. Finished about midday – Payed the Mories [Maoris]

Branded the 175th. Bale!

Before they (the Maories) left I expressed a wish to see them cook in their native fashion in a “Copper Maori” at which wish they were very much pleased. I told them I should give them meat & potatoes for themselves & they might cook some for me as I wished to taste this Maori cookery – this gave them the greatest pleasure – they insisted on my partaking of their cookery which they thought a great honor – Accordingly about 1 o’c they told me to go to see the prepararions [preparations] – I went – I saw first two women working hard – One digging a round hole in the earth – the other peeling the potatoes I had given them with a bit of glass bottle – in fact scraping them which operation was done very quickly & creditably –

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263.   “A Copper Maori”

I next looked at the hole dug about 4 in. deep with the fine earth carefully thrown out close beside it, it would be about 20 in. in diameter – On the top of this were laid faggots of fire wood & lighted – then the Maori women brought kits of stones (laden like packhorses) & placed these on top of burning wood – by – & by the wood burned through letting these heated stones fall into the pit beneath – then the wood was readjusted and more stones placed on top until the pit was full of heated stones, they being stirred up from time to time with a long pole – Next the wood was carefully thrown to one side every particle of charcoal or smoking embers – A few stones were now taken out of the heap & laid on top of the meat which was previously put in a camp oven – (these were first carefully cleaned) Next the Oven was set in the little hollow – the removal of the stones caused & the remainder of heated stones put carefully

264.   1866   A “Copper Maori” – “Kapura Maori”.

round the bottom of it : then some green herbage (sou’ thistle) was strewed on the stones in the hole that was not covered by the oven – next the potatoes were placed on top of this, then some small flower[flour] loaves – on top of potatoes – this caused a great steam – but to make more, a plentiful supply of water was showered on this latter raising a tremendous steam. then quick quick were mats laid on top of Mats & Bags – bags and mats – and the whole was now covered over with the earth that came out of the pit & tramped with the foot – then all left quite coolly – not even looking back to see if any thing was left undone or if any steam escaped – It was left thus for about an hour – The cook took in to dinner some of the potatoes & meat & I must say – the meat was most excellent & juicey – not dry – potatoes also were excellent & the doughboy “not bad”!

265.   1866

Feb 3 – They (the Maories) left today in high spirits and insist right or wrong to be allowed to shear here next year – When they heard, that before then, I would have sold the place – They said “no good” you cannot find anyone with the money to buy it – and then that I must make a note of recommendation to my successor that they might shear here – which I did.

Feb 4. Great irregularity in the arrival of the English Mails & much dissatisfaction is felt – I determine to go to Napier tomorrow when I do hope it may have arrived – I am all ready to sell the Run now!

Alas – for my plans – three months have now passed – long and weary – for I am quite dissatisfied here – and the place has not yet been sold – Oh Sweet Hope – thou alone dost now cheere me – I cannot now expect to be in England until September

266.   1866   Napier Races

Feb 28th. Today I with Hector Duff left for Napier about 3 o’c P.M., after having received a visit from Mr. & Mrs. Herrick who did ample justice (with Miss Hogarth) to the Peaches which were now almost too ripe. At 6.30 P.M. we arrived at Napier.

March 1st. About 11 o’c we left town “to see the Races”, which were held at “Green Meadows” [Greenmeadows] about 9 miles distant – these “came off” very well, but the course was very dry – clouds of dust rising nearly suffocating one! – Next day, we went out about the

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same time – “the sport” (as I do not call Racing) was pretty much the same as the day before – & to finish up properly! at the last race, the rain fell in torrents drenching every one right and left, scattering them beautifully also settling the dust ditto – and many a poor horse, hired for the occasion – – went home faster than he came out – indeed I saw one ridden to death – it lay by the road side.

267.   1866   Things in general

March 21st. Since writing last near three weeks have elapsed and nothing of great importance has transpired. I have day after day expected Swan the Photographer to come up – Yet he has not arrived – I have also expected a party from Otago to buy the run but he has not made his appearance yet – I expect him next week however – Every thing is going on in “the old way” – burning fern – Cutting thistles &c & now I have “the hands” lifting potatoes –

Today Herrick and A. Duff passed down to the Agricultural Show at Havelock. they tried hard to persuade me to go also but I would not – these meetings are only an excuse for drunkeness or as it is neatly! termed “getting on the Spree”!

I find the time now dreadfully long – I do wish some one would come to buy the place and let me get home – Yet all may be for the best – this delay, for the Cattle plague is bad at home just now.

268.   1866   Prices of Sheep –

April 29. The Native war is now nearly over after lasting for six years – This year has been very trying to Sheep-farmers – Indeed Hawkes Bay never never saw the like – the vegetation is quite parched: on the “plain runs (distinguished from hilly runs) there is “hardly a blade of grass to be seen but grass-hoppers abound in such quantities that they quite cover the ground, and darken the air” – The price of sheep is as a matter of course unusually low – Lowest price I have heard of is a lot from the above mentioned plains sold at 2/- a head ! ! another lot at 5/- &C. –

The other day I sold a lot (to Parker) of 2,000 old ewes for 10/- a head – & 500 wethers at 16/- So that I have no reason to complain. But this run is better than most and the sheep look well – £200 of the money is due in 3 months (28 July) & the rest in 9 months (28 Jany 1867).

I long & think so much about home that I am quite glad to occupy myself with anything to keep me busy – Yesterday I went to shoot

269.   1866   Things in general

ducks at the Nguroro river, but as it was late when I got there (4 o’c) I had poor success only bringing one home –

I have been very busy for the last fortnight mustering sheep and drafting – very disagreeable work with clouds of dust of the worst description filling both nose, eyes & ears &c.

I also heard very good news yesterday – the English Mail had arrived and the price of wool had risen 1½d lb – this looks well for what I sent (165 bales) per “Sunbeam” and hope it may be in time for May – June sales –

The next Station business is to send 110 Rams down to “Arlington” Station bought by Nelson from Cpt Newman – Today a bearer came from Napier to know if I would sell 400 ewes, but I declined to

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take the flock in again.

May 1st. Windy – went to Pig-hunt – shot six with the rifle – a Govt. Enfield – never meant for such a purpose, but pigs or Maories I suppose is all the same – both are black! And the one eat the other & vice versa! – Let us be thankful that there is now no occasion to use them against the Maories altho’ given us for that purpose.

May 4th. Shot a splendid pig in the “Sheep paddock”, took it home on a horse : it would weigh about 150 lb.

May 6th. Sunday – Fine but the nights are now cold and frosty – Burnt fern, ground is quite white in the mornings now.

270.   The unlucky

and we use fire in the evenings and mornings – the nights are now very long, we have to light the candle about 5 o’c –

8th. May. Truly this month – May – is an unlucky one for me – Last May I left England with the saddest feelings a Man can feel – that of parting from the one he loves best on earth. May before that (’64.) I nearly suffered ship wrek [shipwreck] round Cape Horn – indeed all our lives were in the greatest danger – besides I met with a severe accident which I thought at the time would leave its mark & effect till I went down to the grave – indeed my notes at that time said that I thought it would “end my wanderings in this World”. I also noted at that time that May was a most unlucky month for me and that “this I have five years experience of” – Now I add I have seven years experience of it, as on the 8th. I burst a blood-vessel running “to head” some sheep – At the time I thought – I can hardly describe my feelings – the blood-rich warm-red blood choked me – I breathed with difficulty – I had no pain – but a strange sickness came o’er my heart and

271.   1866   Month of May – (See also 2 pages on)

I thought of the words of the one I loved. “Take care of yourself for my sake” – Oh, how I thought of her then – I did not know how much worse I would become. I thought I might also be bleeding internally, and in my heart I called on God to save me. Oh ! His kindness – this was a warning to me for many days. I then took extra care of myself, and by His blessing soon recovered, but indeed I was then much alarmed. If I can, I will remember to always mark in my diary at the first of the year, that May is for me an unlucky month!

Now the days hang very very long – willing to engage myself with any thing that will pass the time –

May 23. Went out duck shooting at Nguroro river. had very little luck but a long creep on hands and knees on hard shingle. Went out another day pighunting, shot 9, with the Govt. Enfield rifle, which is certain from 200 yds to 500 – Found another swarm of bees &

272.   Panama Line –

“boxed” it putting it in the garden after – I long for this mail arriving as by it I expect to receive offers for my run –

May 25th. Made up my mind to go home by Panama route on the 8th Septr. & expect to arrive in England on the 29th. October, but as this resolution has been formed in May it may not meet with success! –

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May 27th. Herrick & A. Duff left this morning – we had a friendly game at whist last night – We have had a days rain at last! now fine growing weather –

May 28th. The English Mail has arrived – Cattle disease alarming – Farmers’ loss – more than a million!

First of the Panama Steamers the “Kikora” has arrived – short passage 56 days including three stoppages – St Helena – St Vincent, & Cape of Good Hope – War imminent Austria & Prussia.

The Panama Line to England is to occupy 50 days – to sail from Wellington, first date of departure, 28 June 1866.

273.   1866   Unlucky month of May – continued!

Two pages back I spoke of the unlucky Month of May. I have since been reading a “diary of 1858” and there find further particulars! In May 1856, I along with my dear Brother Alick, who is now no more, were nearly lost in the surf in Wick Bay when going on board the Steamer going to Aberdeen. In May of 1857 I met great anxiety in Dublin and suddenly found myself in the great city “without a shilling” till a welcome cheque from home relieved me. In May of ’58 I was if possible in a worse fix in London – That month also I parted with dear dear friends – my Brother, my Sister & my Uncle – never to meet again on earth – May we meet in Heaven and may God in his mercy prepare me for whatever trials he sees fit to visit me with.

274.   Duck Shooting –

June 10th Station work proceeds as usual. I keep two men regularly every day thistle hunting. They have also to cart water once a week for Station use. I sometimes go pig-hunting with the Enfield rifle which is capital sport – but the pigs are sometimes very wary smelling me near quarter of a mile off, then of course they soon disappear – I also duck hunt sometimes at Nguroro.

June 16th. I went out with Hugh Duff for a day’s shooting, we left at 9 o’c A.M., returning at “dark night”, laden heavily! indeed we had to leave some of our game by the way and send a man on horse back for them when we returned. We had capital sport duck shooting in “Maraekakaho” & “Nguroro” river, also Pukako [Pukeko] shooting in “Reserve swamp” among the tall reeds of the “raupo” – The shooting of the two days came to 8 brace ducks & 6 do Pukako !

June 28th. Went to Napier with A. Duff – Arrived at 2 o’c – Hotels crowded – Large Land leasing Auction going of the large plains near Napier called “The Parkawhai [Pakowhai]”.


It is positively wonderful the price realized – some as high as £4 per acre! but mostly £2! Mere lease this : Why, if this was purchase price it could hardly be more – I have finally made up my mind to leave by first mail by way of Panama which leaves here on July 13th. & expect to arrive in England on 29th. Aug. !! I have arranged my affairs so that this run can be sold, perfectly well in my absence. I intend leaving a joint power of Attorney with D. McLean Superintendant & James Watt to see my instructions carried out before I bind myself as seller to make good title. I have procured two handsome Maori spears, one from Parker & the Other from D. McLean – the latter has a long history connected with it as he said – and had been used in fighting on the East

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Coast. I also bought a Maori image (“Tiki”) made of greenstone – it is very very rare it was taken off a prophet’ s neck – also at the East coast and is considered by them as a charm or antidote against all ill.

31st. Monday Came last night from Napier. River high – great blow of wind nearly put our eyes out! Sand very bad.

276.   Ten years Back!   1866

July 14th. Have finally determined on leaving here (Napier) on the 29th. inst. and Wellington by Panama for London. on 8th. August.

Went pig hunting a few days ago – shot two at the same time! with Enfield rifle – Also went duck-shooting on Nguroro river – not much success. I am now busy packing up, and only wish the Steamer and myself were leaving direct for England! or at any rate that my luggage was at Napier – Cold with snow on hills.

Looking over an old diary “of May 17th. 1856”, I can hardly write of the mournful pleasure it gives me : the smiling happy face of my sister then met me, but is now no more – My Brother too, who used to hunt and fish with me – he too has gone the way of all living – and many others also who appears to have accompanied me in my sports when writing then – have also gone to their last account – Oh may this warn me too of the shortness of time and that I know not “the day or the hour when the Son of Man cometh”.

277.   Continued – 1866

Let me now quote the words of my diary at that time as it will recall pleasant recollections at a future time –

“May 17th. 1856” on Saturday the 16th. went to Loch Lomond after first ascending the Clyde in a small shaft Steamer arrived at Bowling and took train for the Loch – hired a boat and landed on – an island where Mary Queen of Scots was confined or retreated to after leaving Loch Leven Castle – Saw there the Castle of Lenox &c. – went down the Clyde to Glascow [Glasgow] and took train to Motherwell –

“17th. May 1856. Motherwell is a little villiage near the Duke of Hamilton’s Palace & about 15 miles from Glascow – The fields and hedges and trees are really beautiful – “Just now” continues my diary, “I am sitting under the lee of a hedge – a footpath runs at my feet – a beautiful park lies before me with some pretty Cattle feeding in it – and four stacks of hay in the Corner and two tall trees are at the head – to the right is a green thorn hedge, with tall stout willow trees in it – In a rivine [ravine] to the left runs the railway line and to the left of that is the town of Motherwell. (I put up at an Inn a little distance from it.) The day is beautiful and warm, all is quiet and no bustle is here as in Dublin, (which I had just visited) where thousands and thousands of people crowd the Parks, where cabs & cars drive to & fro, where men & women sit at every corner selling Oranges, Nuts, bread &c, or men driving a great trade in all kinds of liquor – with the exclamation “Begad its the best whisky in Dublin Paddy Brannaghan sells”! there the shillings sixpences or coppers rapidly exchange hands.

278.   Ten years back!

May 17th. 1856 “And then these are seen leaving the tent in what Paddy calls “a spiritual humour”!

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There everything is bustle and confusion, they keep not and know not the holy Sabbath, for on that day the Shops are all open – and tobacco & Spirits are “the run of the day” – Steamers, excursion trains – &c. &c. But here – what a contrast – every thing is quiet – Now the air seems sultry and hot : the wind is beginning to rise – I lit my pipe and cast my eyes around, a great Mountain of fire arrests its progress; it is the Great “Vulcan foundry” – I also visit Hamilton Palace and Bothwell Brigg. The former is most magnificent – and the way in which the gardens are laid out are so too. There are the most splendid trees I think ever I saw. The Latter Place is famous as being the site of the battle in 1679, the Covenanters were defeated by the Duke of Monmouth – “May I now venture to predict where I may be if spared this time ten years hence” – I now believe I will be settled and happy on a landed estate in “Bonnie Scotland” although I am now in New Zealand. Yet this, only a guess, as in 1856 I little thought of being here. The County I have no idea of, perhaps Elgin or at least between Edinburgh and Aberdeen.

279.   Preparations for leaving!

July 15th. Have packed every thing to send to Napier per first opportunity – am to leave myself on 25th. Rain has set in at last – it is very greatful and was much much needed.

19th. Called on A. McLean – Rode up back boundary of Run – went to Kereru to see Hugh Duff –

20th. Turned off a shepherd for not putting away a Puppy when told, & keeping another dog besides. Sent off the other Boundary Shepherd for leaving his boundary, and going to “Hampden”.

21st. Returned in Company of A. McLean & A. Duff.

22d. Heavy rain : I hope I will be able to get my luggage and Self to Napier in time for the Str.

July 23. Rain : Engaged a shepherd. went with A. Duff to shoot ducks – got none –

24th. Fine – last day at Station! perhaps for ever! I hope so and I think so – going to pig hunt with A. Duff in evening if time –

25th. I, with Hector Duff leave for Napier. I send down the Cart with my traps, by “Havelock” as the river is impassible.

29th. July Dreadfully disappointed.. I made all ready to leave New Zealand today – perhaps for ever, but God has seen meet to do otherwise with me. By the mail arrangements now made I cannot

280.   Disappointment –

leave till the 1st. Septr. – just one month yet –

Almost all the news from Europe this month is of a gloomy nature – Wool down – great failures -unprecedented panic – Rate of discount 12½ pc [per cent] – worse than all – a War has also broken out – May God avert future calamities & keep Britain from mingling in the fray – it may yet be all for the best my present delay in leaving – May He direct my steps for good. The time in Napier feels very very long so I went to the Theatre with Watt & Hugh Duff –

29th. Sunday. – Pouring rain. I am now in “Gill’s Hotel” preparing to leave again for the Country.

What a long dreary ride Hector and I had yesterday : perhaps the “long round by Havelock” had something to do with it, but I think I felt most the dreadful disappointment of not being able to leave for England most of all – My mind brooded on this for weeks after, indeed until I left, & so slow did that month pass

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that I thought I w’d [would] never get to the end of it!

281.   Pig-Hunting &c

The next few weeks I determined to devote to the best kind of amusement I knew “Pig-hunting” – and many days of capital sport I had : indeed after some weeks of this splendid “Rifle practice” – I could shoot two at once – a difficult feat, as they must both be in a vital part & also so fair that the ball cannot glance off – indeed this latter is so difficult of attainment, that only once did I succeed in killing two porkers dead on the spot. The rifle used is the long Government enfield rifle, a most deadly weapon, but one which is easier used at 50 yards than 100 yds. My next feat in rifle shooting was shooting the head off a small (sparrow) hawk, who took up an unfortunate position on a fencing post – I also spent some of my time in duck shooting but in this I was not so successful – having no cover

282.   How I spent

to take advantage of – the ducks always frequenting a river which had no banks for half mile & more on either side – I also spent some of my time gardening, and sowing peas, beans, onions, pumpkins.

But after all that – three weeks were still on my hands – I felt dreadfully at a loss what to do – ” Maori hunt”! as I called looking for old pahs  & curiosities was just the thing, and I spent many days very agreeably in this way – not altogether unrewarded – for I found fragments of adzes and other things – I also sought out some very pretty pebbles from strange little heaps to be met with hear & there on certain spots – These are very very strange collections & the Maories say were left by the “Moa” (Dinornis) when he died – they being in his gizzard! If so I may have some remarkable pebbles in my collection! just now I cannot tell but the same are found in quantities at home, so

283.    my time

little heed did I give to those things then – I may mention that I met a gentleman who on two occasions took up moa bones from beneath these heaps – conclusive evidence of their origin –

Aug 12th. What recollections this day calls up! The next “12th” I hope to shoot grouse at home –

13th. Went to pig-hunt, but saw bullocks on run so I returned taking them with me!

25th. Sat. Went to Napier – what is my surprise to find James Smith there, he is married too! Well he has recovered his health & that is a blessing – I recommend him to go up to my place & stop for as long as he likes till something can be done for him. I spoke to Donald McLean to try to do some thing for him –

27. Got The Newspaper! what happiness!

28th. Last night in Napier, I believe for many many years – say 12 if spared so long – Sat up very late or rather early with A. McLean two Duffs – Lots of tots!

284.   I leave New Zealand –


Aug 29th. Fine – Stiff breeze – Rose quite fresh notwithstanding our late or rather early vigils At 12 o’ c went on board the

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“Wellington” Str. for Wellington on my way to join the Panama boat for England – I was accompanied on board by A. McLean, Hector & Alick Duff, & James Smith – we had rather a rough passage to Wellington where we arrd. [arrived] in 23 hours, at 10 o’c A.M. next day – Here I found I had a week to get through! how was I to do that! I found the General Assembly or Houses of Parliament were sitting here just now: so I determined to hear the wise men of the Colony speak, at 3 o’c –

30th. “Went to the House” – truly it was amusing to hear “the debates”! or rather back-biting that went on – Then a very wise one would rise (known by his look !) breathless I would listen for a voice, after a profound silence, an earnest

285.   House of Assembly –

guttral [guttural] voice began to make a noise and to increase with gathering confidence – then it would die away in the mysterious depths of throat and wiskers [whiskers] – which latter is considered highly “ministerial”, & only one or two exceptions are highly ditto but in the opposite extreme – every patch of hair vigorously & salubriously shaven or shorne! But to return to the fate of the nervous member – from another official den, an honorable member is seen to arise – he speaks! the nervous man stops! they look, both speak! Nervous man stares hard – harder – sends other to his seat! whereupon this bold man adjusts his ministerial eye glass into his ministerial eye – shuts t’other! draws his official lips off official teeth! & stares hard at nervous man – Nervous man loses the thread of his discourse!

286.   Wellington Museum

and after going on for a little like the last expiring gasps of a Highland Bagpipe – fairly “shuts up” – Of course it is now the Bold Man’s time and he goes boldly and fearlessly into the field &c. &c. An hour of this was enough for me and I left – and did not return again either – though more than a week in town. My bad taste did not appreciate the wisdom of these wise men!

Sunday – Went to Church of course – & heard a good sermon though perhaps the minister might as well have left out telling us that Job was of say worth £40,000! Well – Well!

3rd. Went to Wellington Museum saw Sir George Gray [Grey] there & was introduced to him – there was certainly a great collection of most interesting things which certainly repays the visitors’ trouble – of mines – minerals – shells – woods & Native weapons &c, but what most attracted my attention was a complete skeleton of a


Moa (Dinornis) – This immense bird is extinct now – it stood 7 feet high! and the Maoris still talk of it with great dread – They say it used to eat their young children – & they had to set fire to the whole country to get rid of it – What made the bird even more interesting to me was my having two Moa bones in a creek on “the run”. Since seeing the whole skeleton I have written to Napier to make further researches to try to procure more of the bones.

7th. Sick tired of the Place – New Zealand altogether! and if I once more get home again I will take care to be contented to stop – May He direct it so, and give me good health there as here – The “Rakaia” our Steamer came in today – towards night

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it blows a perfect gale – I saw a cart & horse blown quite round in the street! Shop windows are blown in – Trim off houses & it is dangerous (if possible to walk the Streets alone) on account of stones striking against one like a discharge of swan shot!

291.   1866   Leave Wellington –

8th. Septr. On board the “Rakaia” Steamer en route for London via Panama – at length the long looked for day has arrived! – The “Rakaia” is a new Steamer of 937 tons register & 350 horse power – has proved herself a fast and safe ship – She was built on the Clyde especially for this service (Panama & New Zealand) and will in nowise disappoint her owners or builders – she nearly always makes over her contract distance of 10 miles an hour and has just shown to the World what really good Steamers can do in completing the longest steam passage in record! and in the shortest time – This was from London to Sydney via New Zealand and Panama – But more minutely – From London She made Panama, rounded “the Cape” (at least went through the Straits of Magellan), Picked up there the Mails 19 days out from England & sailed for Wellington where she arrived

292.   The “Rakaia” – Cpt Wright

28 days after – Thus bringing newspapers and letters from England to N.Z. in 47 days! a wonder of the World – The “Rakaia” then went to Sydney “to be overhauled” – thus completing 20,000 miles under steam – a thing never known before – She did this under the 90 days and only had three coaling places on the way – St Vincent – Rio & Panama – She is now returned from Sydney as clean & trim as a pleasure boat! but very deeply laden with coal. the only present draw-back to the Line – the want of a coaling Station Midway –

10th. Heavy weather – heavy gale – Heavy sea – all heavy! decks washed beautifully – things float about beautifully – Passengers disappear – dinner table thinned.

Towards night gale increases – no joke

293.   Continued

to be thus heavily laden – Ah the dismal dismal noise of the mighty waters rushing awfully over head – indeed if I were not a little used to it – I would be much alarmed – For the Loss of the “London” Str. is still fresh in our minds & she was also laden tremenously [tremendously] with coal – How dismal it is to stand (if possible) in Cabin & see the green green seas wash high above the glass window & to think of it being only kept out by glass – certainly not ½ inch thick! Tremendous night sea above & below! the rush of waters heard every where – how dreadfully the ship rolls – I sometimes think she will never be able to recover – then the tremendous thumps the poor ship gets – has Neptune a spite at this invasion of the Pacific ? or does he want to stop the new line! How the Ship trembles & quivers all over from his blows! – It’s no use fighting with him – the Ship is hove too & we spend a wretched night

294.   The Doctor –

in darkness and rolling! – we were hove to for 12 hours – and then – proceeded to the disgust of some of the passengers – The only inconvenience I suffered however was the once or twice

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getting a cup of tea or coffee spilt over me! –

12th Septr, The Weather has much improved – it is warmer too – 50° – (We had showers of hail & very cold) and the Cabins are beginning to dry – for some of these seas (spoken of) came pouring into the Saloon – I paid a visit to the Doctor – my throat was very sore a sort of swelled glands – he gave me a gargle that put it away – He told me the list of his casualties was rather great this morning – 4 of the crew got broken bones or maimed in some way in the storm – one was washed overboard, but was miraculously saved by a rope – We also lost one cow – lots of Poultry – Our jib boom – sails &c were blown to ribbands.

295.   Rakaia

14th. Weather still improves – but yet cold – Run about 1000 miles since leaving –

16th. Sunday – Weather still unfavorable – Had service in the Cabin twice today – Sore throat – had to speak to doctor about it who gave me “a gargle” that relieved it –

17th. Ship rolling heavily – Speculating on our chance of missing the “Southampton Boat” at Panama!

18th. Still ship rolls badly to our great discomfort at breakfast and dinner!

19th. Fair wind at last! the weather is now improving & our decks now keep pretty dry. My cold has nearly left.

20th. Still fine : in the evening we were entertained by some “Readings from Shakespeare”, they were very successful – we had some talent on board too! we had I. B. McAulay, nephew of the great McAulay – Cpt. Vine Hall who read well & was Captain of the “Great Eastern”! Hodson, one of the Commissioners sent from Melbourne to

296.   Eastern Island

the Coming Exhibition to be held at Paris – Sullivan, the Minister for Mines of New South Wales &c. – The “Evening with Shakespeare” passed off very well –

21st Fair wind – All sail set! Ship going along at 14 knots per hour! beautiful day – all in good humor! A Concert to be held in the Saloon tonight.

Lat [Latitude] 34.30.S. [South] Long [Longitude] 127.58.w [west] – Dist [Distance] – 148 miles.

The weather is now truly delightful and the evenings on deck are very pleasant : the chief amusement on deck is “Quoits” and in the evenings “readings” or “music” in Saloon –

25th Splendid day – sea calm as glass – we had our ports opened for the first time since leaving Wellington, today. Agreeably surprised by the sight of land, when we got on deck. It is an Island 9 miles broad by 13½ long called “Eastern Island” in lat. 27 S. Long 109 W. & is

297.   continued

900 miles from Pitcairn’s Island – It is inhabited by about 2000 cannibals! we passed within 4 miles of it – It seems well grassed & I thought what a splendid “sheep-run” it would make – As this line is quite in the track of the Panama Steamers – I believe it will ultimately (say 2 years) become a coaling station of the Company – but there are many difficulties at present to overcome – We saw a most beautiful extinct Crater rising in a beautiful four square for about 80 ft – then where the lava overflowed it was gapped into two Peaks –

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26. The Awnings are put up today & it is now so warm we are glad to take shelter under it – The evenings are beautiful & the moon nearly full – “The Rakaiaites” advt. [advertised] a concert tonight on deck!
29th. Septr. The Trade winds are still against us so we are beginning to fear we shall miss the “West India Steamer”.

298.   The Engine Room

30th. At length the wind has “come round”, & we do think to get to Panama in time – We have great discussions about this and other things in the “Smoke House”! indeed I hardly know what we should do without these two little rooms on deck –

2nd October Most pleasant sailing going about 13 knots per hour with full steam & sail : we had a “grand Concert” in the Saloon tonight – it came off very well, there were 6 or eight performers
3rd. Went down to the engine room. The works there are truly marvellous – I saw also the furnaces on the new principal of having it ramified with tubes to create the perfect draught – the heat was very great down there – had another Concert from the Rakaiaites.

299.   “Crossing the Line”

4 October. Crossed “the Line” this morning for the fourth and last time I hope and trust – for although it is highly necessary this “coming and going” – yet I must confess I hardly like it, & the travelling hardly likes me, as I almost always get coughs or colds at these times – indeed I believe I was born to live a quiet life, & this is now all my desire – We are to have “Theatricals” tonight :

5th. they came off very well indeed – there were four gentlemen and two Ladies – A nice little impromptu Theatre was errected on the quarter deck decorated in front with flags – big & little guns – cutlasses &c. A Champagne supper wound up the whole – given I believe by the Cptn.

5th. Warm but not oppressive : in fact it is hardly credible that up to this time (in 4° N. Lat.) we have retained our Winter clothing! We had a Champaigne dinner & presented the Cptn.

300.   Panama –

with a neat little present (An Emu Egg mounted as an inkstand) and also a written testimonial of his kindness &c. &c. –

Oct. 6th. When we rose this morning, had the very great pleasure of seeing Land within half a mile of us covered with the most luxuriant vegetation that it is possible to conceive – We came to an anchor about 4 o’c. P.M. the scenery in this Bay of Panama is truly beautiful – it is studded with little islands – covered with emerald green vegetation – even the seemingly bare rocks are covered – The pine apple we could see growing most luxuriantly – & burnt in little patches as the fruit ripens – We land

301.   The Isthmus –

tomorrow at 10 o’c:A.M. & should arrive at Colon by 4 P.M. Where the Boat “Solent” waits to take us on to St. Thomas to join the West India Str. – I may mention that this month October is the most unhealthy one here owing to its being the last one of the rainy season.

October 7. Landed at 11 o’c.  amidst a Steaming hot atmosphere, took a short walk through the town which seems very old indeed,

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it has been at one time strongly fortified, the ancient walls are quite studded with loop-holes. The largest building was the ancient Cathedral – The Streets are very narrow, badly paved & filthy in the extreme – the houses are all two-storied with overhanging verandahs, & these are filled with Women & children – thus sundry & divers things fall on the traveller’s head! After a tremendous hurry of getting our baggage weight for transit across the Isthmus, we left about 1 oc.  – I may mention that the rate is


exhorbitant – 1½ d per lb being charged for this transit of 47 miles – 100 lb – free. Regarding our trip across, I have only to say what every traveller here has told before, that the luxuriant vegetation is almost incredible : Cocoa-nuts [Coconuts] – Bananas – Sugar canes – Bamboos – great reeds – gigantic Climbers & creeps. all seem to strive to over top the other. then the ground seems a swamp – every hollow is full of dirty mud-colored water & it in its turn is covered with broad leaves of water lillies &c. – The beautiful bright colors of the flowers excite the greatest admiration – The water is teaming with life – The trees also, with most beautiful colored birds, some of them sing very sweetly indeed. the steaming heat is indeed overpowering. When we went half thro’ [through] – down came a


torrent of rain – and that was rain! Then a hot close warm air prevailed, and a great & mighty Steam rose from the swamps, which by the way only seen here & there through the broad palm leaves – A poor horse happened to stray on the line & of course was killed in an instant, the wheel cutting him quite through.

After 3 hours we arrived at Colon (Aspinwall), where the Royal Companies Steamer “Solent” was waiting for us, a paddle wheel boat of 1384 tons register – the accomodation is not so good as the Rakaia’s – the cabin I have is a miserable hole, far too small fo [for] two – & quite dark besides!

One thing I remarked on the Isthmus was that out of the cracks & fisures [fissures] of the rock! the trees grow – the soil was chiefly red & sandy. The railway is 47 miles long – took three years to make! and cost over 20,000 lives!!

304.   Jamaica –

Octr. [October] 8th. “Here we are” on board the “Solent” Steaming for Jamaica where we hope to arrive on Wednesday – where we will be taken on board the “Shannon” the largest & best of the West India Co’s [Company’s] boats! –

Dreadfully hot & close – Th : 84°

Octr 9th. After two days very pleasant steaming we arrived off Kingston – Jamaica : the only thing which contributes to our discomfort is the excessive heat – with bad ventilation – our Cabins are small and dark with very little air – there being no port or “scuttle” to admit of the cool sea breeze.

Octr 10th. Landed at 8 A.M. The view of the town, from the sea, is very fine : the houses & Streets mixed plentifully with palm trees of every kind, the most predominant is the cocoanut & date

305.   Jamaica –

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having only three hours to spare (the Steamer left at 11 o’c. A.M.) I determined to make the best use of my time – I hired a car which took me to “the Encamp-ment – three miles out – a most pleasant ride it was – the gardens, fenced with cacktus, [cactus] were truly delightful – full of stately and graceful palms & canes – the ground here (behind the town) was flat for a distance of say 10 miles, extending perhaps 30 miles long then rose ranges of hills mostly covered with trees – cultivations were cleared in these for growing coffee &c. & on the little flat tops of the hill – sugar-cane plantations – the hills looked well studded with these & green cultivations.

306.   Jamaica –

The Natives are most industrious – bringing in to Kingston, a fresh supply of fruits, vegitables every Morning – I happened to meet a party – they have their wares chiefly packed on Donkeys – generally six or 8 go at a time driven by a boy who holds the reins – the women follow with huge hampers of fruit on their head which they balance with extrordinary precision – seen to best advantage in a crowd –
A Court- Martial was sitting at the camp when I was there on some soldiers whom the Commissioners charged with undue cruelty at the recent outbreak – The Ther : 88° – Left at 11 oc  –

307.   St. Domingo

The scenery going out of the Bay is very beautiful. we persued a rather circuitous course & passed Port Royal on the one side & a strong fortification on the other – After Steaming out of harbour we shaped our course for Hati [Haiti], & followed the coast for a few hours, we passed close along Morant Bay – the scene of the outbreak – a pretty place – beautifully laid out in cultivations of sugar cane, which looked well from the Str.

Oct 11th. After 24 hours very pleasant Steaming we arrived at Jackmel – the Port of Hayti[Haiti]. We passed Cape Hayten – of “Bulldog” celebrity! “Hayti is called so being the part of the Island conquered by

308.   Hayti –

the French, St. Domingo is the part conquered by the Spaniards – Jackmel [Jacmel] is a very pretty little town – pretty buildings mixed with pretty palm trees, it seems altogether a pretty Island – covered with evergreen trees – has a mountainous look – and on the sides of of the hill may be seen pretty little clearances for cultivations of Sugar cane or coffee – the former has a most beautiful appearance, & this applies to Jamaica as well. After passing out of the harbour of Kingston we came to Morant Bay – the scene of the late disturbances – this is a most picturesque spot – cut up into cultivations of_sugar cane, emerald green – nothing like a town was to be seen, but buildings for the Manufacture of sugar – rum – Molasses &c. – Hayti has a Republican Govt –

309.   St. Thomas

and revolutions there are almost of daily occurrence!

Oct 13. After 5 days run from Colon – Jamaica during which time we were almost “steamed” in these horrid warm close Cabins of the “Solent”, we arrived at St. Thomas, the grand “rendezvous” of the

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West India Steamers – These come from the small Islands round to join the large ones going to different countries – we passed on our way up – Porto Rico[Puerto Rico], which belongs to the Spaniards, St. Cruely, St. Kitz [St Kitts] &c. The heat was very great here. Th : 90° in shade at 8 o’c A.M. The little land-locked harbour is full of ships of almost every Nation – But most prominent were the English – French – Spanish & American – The view of the town from here is most splendid, and the houses are so neat

310.   St. Thomas

and clean – with all kinds of Eastern Palms growing most luxuriantly about them, that scene is really beautiful – The hills rise grasefully [gracefully] up behind the town, maintaining the baisin [basin] shape of the harbour. The vegetation on these is beautiful with every available spot covered with minature castles or Palaces peeping through the foliage – the hill is thus to its summit – When about half down the town begins – built on three distinct spurs or slopes of the hill – say ½ mile apart – these ridges are quite narrow at top, but widen to near half a mile at base – the buildings on this also, and so the town has a grand effect when seen in front from the Bay – At night it looks splendid

311.   The “Shannon”

also – the lights taking of course the same form – The Streets are good – the “shops” are principally “Stores” & the town is not unhealthy – as generally supposed.

1866 Oct 14th Left St. Thomas about 12 o ‘c on board the W. I. S. “Shannon” 2138 tons register 800 h.p. – Very warm last night also – fortunately got a large Cabin to myself! – Next day – a little cooler 84°, passed a great deal of sea-weed; it is strange this line of sea weed extends for thousands of miles always keeping in the same latitude. On the 2d July 1864 I observed the same line of sea-weed & about the same latitude – 24° N. Lat. I confidently hope this will be the last time I will ever see it & certainly not in a sailing vessel – We then took 23 days from there; we expect to it in 11 days! – Tonight the lightning was most grand & awe inspiring.

312.   Lightening [Lightning] in Tropics

The whole sky would be lighted up with one huge flame of blue fire – & sometimes a pale red the sea could be seen for miles around – the smallest object could then be seen – all the little minute streaks of foam on the sea- the long white wake of the Steamer from paddle wheels – Then I looked at the mast & rigging – then came a blinding flash – I saw the smoke from the Funnels – even the rivets – & the heat blistered paint – the ropes & masts & spars looked – in the middle of that large flame – every rope & knot on a rope could be seen even at the farthest part of the ship. I then went to the well lighted saloon – But there too the

315.   Progress

lightening shone with terrible brightness – in the Saloon would seem to be quite filled with the flame then – the rain would descend in torrents – I went to my Cabin but once more looked out to see it – all seemed dark – then the whole Heavens were lighted up, with a sheet of flame that filled space & I could see the shape of all the clouds even clearer than in noon-day –

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but O far more unearthly – In the midst of all this & the roar of the thunder, could be heard the Buccanalian [Bacchanalian] Songs of the “Last young Men”

Oct 16th Much cooler Th. 80° – 11 knots –
17th Heavy tropical showers – indeed the past three days have been nothing else.

18th. First really fine day since we left St. Thomas – The Nights are cooler now, so that we can just bear the covering of a sheet on the bed – The ice on board is a very great luxury – We are now 2,400 miles from Lizard.

325.   1866   Yellow Fever –

Oct 19th. Until now had fine weather with fair wind & smooth sea –

20th. In 38° North latitude, 54° W.L. [West Longitude] – very stormy with high sea & torrents of rain – The 21st is not much better – Captain had prayers in Saloon – A sea-man (Fireman) died today – was buried at 6 o’c P.M.

22nd. Fine but much colder – Ther 63°, and now we are glad to put on Winter clothing and sleep with a blanket at night – we also dispense with our Iced beer & wine – and take our evening glass of hot toddy – 1600 miles from Lizard!

23rd. Fine – Good run – 277 miles – passed two Ships – Ther 6l° – The Man that died on Sunday – was “Committed to the Deep” a few hours after & it was well that it was so, for he died of YELLOW FEVER, it seems he had been “shipped” at St. Thomas where it was raging – Two a day being taken dead from the Hospital when we were there.

326.   Yellow Fever

Five more of the Crew are laid low with it and one is not expected to live – This is sad news for us – I felt a little alarmed at first, but after a little – I felt I was altogether of a Merciful Providence who would keep me, if it was His Will, as surely as if I were in the most healthy place in the World – Our escape was however narrow for one of the Steamers that laid beside (lashed too) us at St. Thomas, had a passenger for our Boat who died of it just a few hours before we left – Other two died in another Steamer beside us.

Oct 24th. A very fine day – 1000 miles from Lizard – played “Bull” for two hours on deck.

327.   Reflections on Route

As I approach the end of my journey I should like to make a few observations on this the “Panama New Zealand” route to Southampton, in Contrast to the two others, namely that by India and that by the Cape of Good Hope – This last named – by sailing Ship – is very long & I may say tedious – but has its many advantages – ( I speak of course of a first Class Ship), Perfect healthiness throughout – the greatest probability of it at least – Not an overcrowded Ship, and more comfort of course – You may secure 1st. a Cabin to your exclusive use & make in it a little home! for a reasonable price also – You have no transhipment at different Ports, And have not the nuisance of being mixed up with passengers, of perhaps most disreputable

328.   Reflections on Route

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and offensive sort and you have not great extremes of heat & cold to go through as compared to the Steamers of the other Lines. By India you have 1st. near a dozen transhipments to submit to – Next you are like to be quite broiled in your close Cabin – You may have two of three in it – and you have a great chance of catching Cholers [Cholera] on the route –

By Panama – The shortness of the time spent between New Zd. [Zealand] & England (50 days) must always recommend it, but there are many drawbacks to this route also – 1st. 3 transhipments


1st at Panama – 2nd at Colon & at St Thomas – Then – The Steameers of the R. Mail Comp. [Royal Mail Company] are very uncomfortable – badly ventilated – with great heat – & last & greatest drawback is the unhealthyness of the route; Yellow Fever almost always on two places of the line at Colon & St Thomas – Therefore I would give the preference of taking my passage to New Zealand to A Sailing Vessel! But if a direct Line is opened to Colon, from New York or Southn. then of course the Panama Line would have the preference.

Octr 25th. Little colder, threatening wet. This day is the first of many to show me that I am again nearing the climate of England – Now only 700 miles from the Lizard!

330.   Southampton! 1866

Oct. 26th. Fine, Played two games of Quoits and won them too.
28th. Arrive at Southampton, 50 days from N.Z. : Stiff breeze – passing lots of vessels. Great “rows” on board. The “Darkey & Wife” who drew his sword versus the American. Then the Mad Agent went into his Cabin & “Blacked his eye”.

28 Oct. 1866 I arrive at Southampton from New Zealand via Panama – 49 days out! Hard job passing luggage at Custom House – went to London next day. After visiting my Tailor, Banker &c., I left for Edinburgh on the

5 Novr. where I met my Brother – Stayed two days there, and left for Aberdeen – saw her there, and arranged everything – told James for first time! Told Mr. B &c. &c. Spent 11 days in Aderdeen [Aberdeen] – Left

16th. for Elgin, arr. in 4 hours after – Drove to different houses – one near Inverness “Killmilay” – But settled on “Newton House”, 3 miles from Elgin.

Left for Olrig on 23rd. by Inverness & Bonar Big at 6 o’c.  Travelled all night in coach & got a bad cough – Arr [Arrived] at Olrig 24 Novr. – Spent a week shooting &

Decr. 3. Left for Aberbeen [Aberdeen] where I arranged the great event to be on Tuesday 22nd. Jany. 1867!

321.   Continued l866

After “the arrangement” I mentioned, I left with my Brother for Paris to be back on the 18th. –
11th. Decr. Left for Edinburgh, stayed two days there – purchases at Jewellers!

17th. Left Edin. [Edinburgh] for London. Spent six days there.

24th. (Monday) Xmas eve! Left London for Paris. Arrived in 10½ hours! 2½ of which was spent at sea between Folkestone & Boulogne. Splendid place Paris – Hotel du Louvre, Rue de Rivoli, Gorgeous Theatres & Operas – & Museum Of Louvre. Like best Theatre “Chatelet”.
Saw Emperor & Empress in garden of Tuleries.

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30th. Dec. Went to Scotch church – 160 Rivoli.

1st. January 1867 –

In Paris with James – Went to Bois de Boulogne – Saw the great reception by the Emperor of Ambassadors, Ministers &c. &c. – Grand sight – & annual salute of drums : 1300.

Jany. 2. Fall of snow – going to get potograph [photograph].

4. Leave for London. Jany 4. Arrived in London – Therm. below zero – Severe storm of snow – Thousands skating on ponds in London. 17th. Arrd. in Aberdeen – like to be stopped with the snow! x Jany 22nd. 1867 Grand Event came at last !!! Stayed Lunch! Left for Perth at 4.15. Stayed that night – dreadful snow storm! Spent 3 days in London. 28th. Left London for Paris & Geneva – Stayed a fortnight in Paris. 13th. Feby. left for Geneva, stayed a night at Macon – Scenery grand – At Geneva on 14th – Grand view on Mont. Blanc – Grand boating & excursions on “The Lake” which is smooth as glass & clear as crystal.

1 March. Left Geneva for Lyons – 3rd. Left for Marseilles. 8th. Left Marseilles for Cannes – Weather fine – Carnival time here!

332.   1866

Dec. 24 (I continue my diary from page before last.) With James I went over from London to Paris & paid £4. 8 for my first class ticket – Spent 5 weeks away returning to Aberdeen on the Jany 18 : expenses of that trip being from first to last £49 –

Jany 18. Arrived from Edinburgh. Dreadful weather – frost & snow – The train was like to stick in it.

20th. Went to East Church –

21. Very busy – dreadful fall of snow.

22. Eventful day has come! Went to 5 Union Place at 1.30, & Ceremony began at 2 oc: by Rev Mr. Brown of East Church – Then we went to Lunch. Left by 4.15 train but only got to Perth that night –

23 at Edinburgh – Burnetts Hotel

24 Left for London – Went to Kenstn. [Kensington] Museum – German Reids – Crystal Palace &c.

28th. Left for Paris & Geneva. Feb 1 Saw Notre Dam [Dame], began to be built in 1160, it is on an Island in the Seine.

333.   1866

Feb 3 Went to the Place Concorde [Place de la Concorde], the louvre Museum, the Madeiline & flower market &c. Saw the Emperor Empress & “Petit Prince” in the Gardens of the Tulleries.

2 1st. Class tickets to Geneva via Paris, Lyons, Dijon & available for a Month cost £11 or £5.10 each!

14. Left Paris for Macon –

15. Left Macon for Geneva. Spent a week at Geneva – it was very beautiful on the lake, clear as Crystal – we took a boat & rowed about on its clear glassy surface – We also took a trip to see Gen. Pope, Castle Chilliong &c by a little steamer – saw Mont Blanc, beautifully capped with snow. Saw Calvin’s pulpit in the great Cathedral. Heard the Grand organ imitate a thunderstorm, it was awfully grand.

March 1 at Marseilles 2. At Cannes – a beauitful resort of fashion on the

334. 1866

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Mediterreanian [Mediterranean] shores. Here we met a Mr. & Mrs. Robertson. at this place we made beautiful excursions. stayed at “Hotel de la Paix”. went to Cany Le gras.

March 25. Went to Nice, visited Monaco.

26. Drove to Mentom [Menton]: paid 50 fr. “Break Neck” road, it is on the way to Genoa.

27. Leave for Marseilles. 28 at Lyons – 29 at Dijon.

30th. Arrived at Paris.

1 April. the Exhibition opens today. took our places early & saw the Emperor & Empress pass within 2 ft of us – Every one is very gay – just now Many Glittering uniforms pass before us, which I believe will soon be prone in the dust – France cannot long keep out of war –

April 4th. Arr. in London

April 23. Arr. at Newton House

331.   “City of Auckland”

Sept. 17 1871

Sunday evening. Many and momentuous are the events that have transpired since I last wrote in this diary & through all there course I have to return my greatful & heartfelt thanks to my great Creator who has safely guided me through them all – Nearly five years have elapsed since then. And I am now returning to the land that I was first guided to when I commenced this book 13 years ago – Then I was a Stranger & a pilgrim going to seek my fortunes, now I return with a Wife & three children to Settle in the land of my adoption – Curious the same Captain (Ashby) takes me out now as I sailed with in 1858 –

Five years of great happiness have we spent since I last came from the Colonies – We spent them in Morayshire at Newton House & many kind friends we met there & hope meet them there again perhaps in four or five years hence – May God watch over & protect me, My Wife & Children as he has been with me hitherto.


24th. Aug. 1871. Left Newton House, Elgin, after spending 4½ very happy years – There made met many true friends – amongst the Chief were Dr. Mackie, our Clergyman; & Robert McKissack, our Neighbouring Proprietor – Many happy days did I spend with my wife at Newton – There I had Shooting – Fishing – Skating – Pic-knicking – Croquet &c. & a splendid Climate too –

25. Visited Jane’s Aunt – Mrs. Clerihew at Ballater; our parting with her was very sad – but we hope to meet again in four or five years – Miss Clerihew, Charley, Mr. & Mrs. Barron & their three children were also there to bid us good Bye –

26th. Arrived in London with Mrs. Mackie & Jack (her son) who goes out with me to Napier – we had a tedious night journey from Aberdeen of 17½ hours & drove to 15 Pall Mall (Adie’s) where I now am.

27. Devoted the day to writing letters.

28. Sunday. Went with Mrs. Mackie to Westminster.

29. Went to Crystal Palace, saw Blondin ride his Bi-cycle on the tight rope, 80 ft. high.

30. Purchases made in the city – Shop recommended. Wm. Holdich. Draper. 71 Ludgate Hill. London.

31. Purchases in Oxford St. & Regent St. Took potographs [photographs]

1st. September More purchases in do. Mrs. Mackie came in evening.

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2nd. September. Went to city with James. drew money from Bank. Called on Ellen. Went then to Crystal Palace – Military Concert – fountains played. Dined in 1st. class dining rooms –

336. 3rd. Septr 1871. London. Gravesend

Sunday. Went with James to hear Dr. Canning. Then went with Children to St. James’s Park. Dined at 5.30 with him at Tavistock Hotel.

4th. Go down with James & Sandy Barron to see the “City of Auckland”.

5th. Busy in City.

9. Did banking. Afterwards went to C. [Chrystal] Palace with James

10th. Sunday – did packing

11th. Went to ship from Charing Cross. arrived at Gravesend about 11 oc. much trouble in shipping the cow I take out as Foot & Mouth disease had broken out there. James (my Brother) stayed with us all night & left when we weighed anchor at 3 o’c next day

12th. Sailed from Gravesend –

13. Fair wind, but strong & Ladies sick. Pilot left at Ventnor, Isle of Wight.

14. Still a fair wind 740 miles from Gravesend! –

15. Fair wind. Passing the Bay of Biscay.

16. Wind baffling – passed “the Bay” tonight –

17. Off Cape Finisterre. English Service on deck. & 6.30 P.M. Our first Sunday on Board – Calm.

19th. very stormy – We are now near where the unfortunate Turret-Ship “Captain” foundered with all hands –


Sep 20. Also a miserable day – I attended children nearly all day!

21. At length we have fine weather and the passengers begin to look “all alive” again. We shall be off Madeira tomorrow – 24 Sunday – Service on Deck. Jane played the Organ Flutina – Contrary winds –

25 Ships in sight- foul wind.

26 Saw Madeira distinctly, signalled two ships – The “Surrey” was one. Ther. in Cabin 75° & we think we are now in “the trades”. Not unpleasantly warm. evenings are fine.

27. Weather fine – Off Canaries –

28th. Ran 129 miles – fine – Geese to dinner! practiced flutena [flutina] Music with the Ladies on Deck, for Sunday.

29. Fine – Concert on Main Deck at Night

30. Splendid breeze. 100 miles from Tropics & 73° in Cabin!!
Oct 4th The Land is in sight – Port Antonio, one of the Seilly Islands – Ther. in Cabin 78° – Children are sick with the heat.
Oct. 9 Up to this date the passengers (especially) the ladies have found the heat very much – Jane, Bella & the children have suffered much, & we are


all hoping we will soon “get out of it”.
Oct 10. Another wet sultry day : the Cpt assures us this is the best season of the year for crossing the Line; if so, some would have suffered frightfully with a more intense heat. Here in Lat. 8 N., L. at 22 we loose the N.E. Trades! Oct 12. Got the S.E. Trades! They came in with a bluster. L. 5. 50°

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Oct. 15  “We Cross the Line” – 33 days from Gravesend, 50 days will now bring us to New Zealand so that we may now “count”. We have had two very cool days, the wind keeping up. Jane is now better though not quite strong yet. I have a bath in a spare cabin every morning which is a great luxury. 81° Ther.

The Sea tonight has been running from our Rudder like a river of silver with balls of blue fire on the top. The Captain never saw it so fine. A squall of wind & rain soon came on, & drove us down. Jane I am very sorry to record was very very sick, & the Doctor saw her in


her Cabin. Too much fatigue on s….

Oct. 16. We are going along beautifully, it is now cool the Ther. being at 78° in Saloon –

Oct 18. Jane is now almost quite well. so are the children & we are looking hopefully forward, as half the passage is now nearly over – I have got a sore throat.

Oct 21. Fair winds. Lat. 16°. fine Cool weather. I saw the Planet “Venus” today at 11 oc A.M.! !

31 “Hallowene” [Halloween]! We kept this night by being as jolly as circumstances would permit. About 8 o’c we had 3 plates of water of different degrees of cleanness; the folk were blindfolded & the future one chosen or fate decided. then a bble. reacting & cards after –

Nov 2. Off Tristan D’ Acunah, we had very stormy weather here & very buffling winds & Jane has again been sick – I had stormy weather here 13 years ago.

Nov 4. Fine bracing weather. Temp. on deck 52° . A fair wind – a 10 knot breeze, “Jip”, “Fanny” & the cow are quite well, but the Pup is dead.

340.   1871

Nov 18 – 48 S. Lat. 5.21 E.[East] Lon.

Going along most splendidly, tho’ we have had light winds for this Latitude during the past week : the time has passed very pleasantly away – week succeeds week in amazing rapidity – In the Tropics where we were almost broiled & where Mrs. Smith was very sick indeed, the time dragged along, but here with a bracing atmosphere & every one in good health the days fly – Our evenings are spent in playing whist – our party of four consists of Mrs. Maynard – Miss Graham – Mrs Smith & Self – We have great fun with Mrs M. [Maynard]: & the Couch & the “spectral hand” which appears half an hour before herself at her Cabin door.

Nov 18. The weather has been cold & stormy for the past week, but we hope to be past all the cold at least, by Monday

341.   1871

when we pass the Islands & we look forward to arriving in Auckland by the 12 of Decr.! The day breaks about 4 o’c : & the Childrens breakfast is at 7.30 A.M. it takes a good deal of resolution to rise in time with these cold mornings.

Nov 19. Sunday – Hurrah! only three Sundays still to be on board. Cold, but dry – Off “Kerguelon’s” Land” – 41° on deck – the sea is now quite clear, but was “very dirty” two days ago when off the “Crozets” – Sea weed seen –

25. Sat. The glass is falling & the sea is running high, but we are all in the best of Spirits, “two Saturdays more” is the grand

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consoler – The children are well & happy – Jane & her Sister are well & we have all much to be thankful for. I have given orders that the cow be weaned on the 30th!

She has given plenty milk all the way & I do not know how the Children would fare without her – I am busy studying photography –

Dec 3. Off Adelaide, and we look forward to landing on Monday or Tuesday next: So that Jane &

342.   1871

Dec 3. (I) have been writing home. I have been writing out & studying about the Chinchona plant.

Dec 5th We pass Tasmania tonight, we were doing some packing yesterday & will be at it from day to day.

Dec 7. Lat 43. Lon. 142. Slow is our progress now – the sea is like glass & we are only doing about 120 miles a day – Still the Cpt. says he will land us next week, and the scrubbing of decks, hen-coops, masts, taring of ropes &c. goes on with great vigour

– Bird catching

The last of the bird catching is today – 5 Large Mollyhawks were taken in & skinned by Mr. Neal.

Dec 9 – A Series of provoking calms with fog & rain – The Crew are busy scrubbing the deck &c.

10th We hope this is the last Sunday on board & accordingly give up our hymn-books –

11th Alas! Dead Calm and we have almost all gone to bed!

343.   Arr. at Auckland

Dec 13. We had lightening last night, and we have a Storm of wind & rain today. We are I suppose 200 miles to the East Cape –

14. Very provoking Calm which lasted all night into the morning of the

15. Land in sight at 6 o’c P.M. !! boxes are being packed &c. beautifully fine, rather Calm. They are busy varnishing, painting & beautifying the ship. Signed a testimonial to the Captain – dressed birds skins. I saw that “Fanny”, “Jippy” & the Cow “Lossie” were all right. hope to land tomorrow night –

19th. Beautiful day. Came up to Wharf. very warm. 75° in shade. busy packing bales, blankets & boxes –

30. Spent nearly a fortnight in Auckland. Drove out to Kohimarima with James Watt.

1872. Jan 1. Arrived in Napier after a splendid passage per “Star of the South”.

344.   1872

Spent more than 2 months in a little Cottage called Mrs. Gills. Dreadfully hot there – opposite the Sheaspere [Shakespeare] road, which being of white limestone, sends its glare back on the house. 80° in shade.

Feb. 20. I attend a wool-sale. 29 bales H. were offered. Locks bring 4½d 1b., pieces 9d, & Fleece 11d. Pouring rain & the weather cooler. 65.

March 16. Jane and myself drove out to a Sale of furniture at the “Big Bush” belonging to a Mr Nelson – We bought £100 worth –

19. Going up to Aorangi to paper the house.

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230.   231.   Letter to his Mother

Aberdeen.   177 Union Street

March 25th 1865

My Dear Mama (Heavily crossed out) – I will not attempt to disguise the object of these few lines which I now submit to your perusal and my fondest hope is they may meet with your most favorable forbearance and consideration – – – – It is from a sense of duty, due to you which as long as I live shall be by me held most sacred, and not from inclination that I now seek to make known my present intentions as to me the subject is one of great delicacy which in other circumstances I should probably conceal until the time fully arrived – – – –

With painful feelings indeed did I hear you say from time to time that you wished me to return to my distant home single and alone, as I came – – – – It is true that when I left New Zealand for this Country it was with the entire and complete object of seeing you and James and if the distance had been twice 15,000 miles I should have gladly undertaken the journey: but since then I have formed an attachment to one in every way worthy and capable of making my happiness in this world as complete as can fall to our mortal lot, unless indeed marred by a hasty, and I must add, harsh decision which I do believe and fervently trust you can not come to after fully considering my letter, and the very brief space of happiness we have in this Life – – – –

As to my worldly prospects they are ample and sufficient – I have lands and sheep of my own separate and distinct from the valuable property I lately bought from Mr. Tollemache. So as to this no objection can be raised to my proposal – – – – It is not for me to remind you of the shortness and uncertainty of life – or of days and years of anxious toil for others to come after us – or of the lonely days spent in a far Country without even a friend to consult or a relative to sooth, it may be, days of sorrow or sickness for I know that many and oftentimes you must think sadly on these things – Forgive me then for having given way to these thoughts which I have often often brooded over, and , O think not I speak lightly of them; and as this is my first communication on this subject which so nearly & dearly concerns my happiness so must it also be my LAST, which I pray & hope may meet with your speedy and favourable assent –

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71.   Things for the passage

To be done before leaving

Pay “Punch” & “welling Adr”. Order “Hearald” for home. Pay Battersbee. Needles & thread.

For the passage –

Light clothing, – good tweed, kid gloves – best blue Cap, with glazed silk cover. ½ doz. saddle straps – 2 doz white shirts. 2 doz shirt fronts – 2 doz paper collars – A hat & hat box – 2 colored silk hankerchiefs. Patent leather boots. light Wascoats [Waistcoats] – 2 boxes sedlitz Powders. 1 box Cockers antibilious pills. Matches. pakage candles. get some good brandy & bottle Eau de colone – Flannel binders –

72.   – Things to be taken from home –

Shetland-socks – boots &c – Scotch blankets – Books – clock, one for shed – Pumpkin & Vegetable seeds – Cucumber do – Honeysuckle do (end of Hayfield House (J. S.) ) – Sheep-dogs – Cattle – soap – pitch – Saddles & straps – Branding & ear-marking irons – Letter brands (sheep horns) – Hay knife – Medicine box (oz pkt. of salts) – Taurpaulins – Barometer. Anroid – Timothy grass seed. (The Tarpaulins & cartrope & ramrope should be put into the tanpit along with say some hide, & washed in cold water afterwards). 2 gutta-percha ponchos, simple sort hole at top for head – yellow color – Patent leather top boots, well up on knee black – & Stirrup irons covered with leather black & stout – 2 saddles & stock mans strong course bridle – American brooms – the best – & Am. axes (edins) – Butchers knives (1 doz. small sort, 5/6 to 7/6) Strichnine – & Calico notices from any Printer – “Poison layed [laid] on this run” Married couples for run – See Lawson (seedsman) about Osage orange. Fir tree seed – 2 heavy quarry mens picks – 2 Collin’ s ditto – 1 light. 1 heavy – 2 light shovels Ami’s. 2 spades. 2 strong garden ploughs. good trace chains for pl. [plough] lines. spring hooks l doz. split links. calico felt for drugget -½ doz skewers for Wool-press. 1 narrow spade. 2 good scotch ploughs see at Olrig. Good strong Moleskin. crimean shirts get made by tailor & pokets [pockets] with button. Memorandum & Ledger books : hinges & locks – dog chains & chain collars – sythes [scythes] – …… Pack all in casks. l doz frying pans &c. buckets (iron) billies see page 2

2.   To be taken from home

Milners patent fire proof safe. Weighing machine – Memorandum from J. Sth. notes : Galv. [Galvanised] Iron wire worth from £10 to £12 per ton. Moorewoods do. not to thin, packed in cases. do Corrugated – difft. [different] guages [gauges] – guttering with brackets & ridgeings – Nails – Galv paint – white lead – Screw bolts for gate. nails &c. Pitch. Sheers (Sorbys). Chain harrows for grass land. Wool packs. Soap – Lrpool [Liverpool] Salt – Double roller –

*Wool Press Hydraulic for Stations, not for Warehouses – Beware of huge size.

One horse garden plough with shifting Mould-board also apparatus for heaping potatoes : with spare mould board.

*1 Horse rake

2 sets plough harness, Paints & Paint Oil.

2 Good bill hooks for hedges – Alighie fagoting [faggoting] hooks. Some large coarse sheets for sowing grass seed. Harrow teeth. Hand

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saws. fencing Agurs [Augurs]. Adzes. Dung forks & hay do. heavy hoe & grubbers for thistles. Bullock cains [chains]. Black handled gimlets. 6 mortice chisels. Osage Orange. 2 cold-chisels. Big 2 in Augur. best Boots. leather slippers. & boot laces. Implements for mending harness. 2 palms. l nest elastic bands – Small copying press with letter book, the bookseller to put a lock on it. 1 doz Memrandum [Memorandum] books – * When returning from


home if via Sydney call at Baylis’s get a “Ration Cart” (very light a mere skeleton) with Gard [Guard] irons, & iron dray pins, warranted to carry from cwt 20 to 25 cwt – with screw break & prop sticks – and iron eyes for a leading horse – Broad track. May also get a bullock dray – seasoned timber – also with screw break, warranted to 4 tons, the name to be put on; & insured – 2 Post-hole borer 7/- Portable Forge. horse nails – 14 lb assorted. Gilpins assorted size horse shoes – 56 lb. assorted iron. Eel spears. Dic for note paper – envelopes &c. Mincing Machine – Stove. Fiddle strings. Medicine Chest. one horse thrashing machine. Ditto Roller – Flexible harrow. Reaping Machine – Horse rake – Tile Pipes – Croquet materials. Soda water Machine. Wire netting for sheep.

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118.   “Roxburgh Castle”, June 16th 1864
(From Melbourne to London)

On choise [choice] of Ship & Cabin &c &c for a long voyage

Preface : the “Remarks” are short as being more likely to gain attention –

1st. Choose a Ship from a Line of traders to a Port of destination & not from Charterers. One of the Ships of the “White Star” Line (to New Zealand) is best in my opinion.

2nd. Choose a ship of not less than 1000 tons register, & that 14 days before her departure

3d [rd]. After seeing the Agents of the ship as to plan, cost of Cabin, & if the same is fitted up for you : if Wine & beer is furnished (you may give an extra £5 for this luxury).

*Go on board : examine the Cabins. See the W.C. works right and not likely to go wrong during the voyage –

*Examine the port, window, or “Scuttle” if tight, (Ask the Steward about this) those fitted with a screw are best, with “cut water” inside the sill.

*Explain to the Stward [Steward] how you wish your Cabin fitted – The washing arrangements not to be beside the bed – & if the W.C. is in the Cabin have


119.   continued

it beside this – also have a post so as to help your sitting in rough weather. Have the outer ledge of your bed * have it “fore & aft” & not near the scuttle or port, pretty high (to prevent rolling out).

* Give the Steward these directions, also give him half sovereign

4th. See that your Cabin has “Venetians” for Air. See to the lock of the door – See that your Cabin is not situated near any nuisance such as “Stewards Pantry”, “At foot of a ladder” “Mates Cabin” &c. Also have a book shelf – Shelf for filter & glass.

5th. Choose your Cabin on the Port or left side of the Ship – you will then get the benifit [benefit] of the S.E. & N.E. trades in the hot wether [weather] & likely have the “lee” side of the ship in the rough “Southerly” weather off the Cape –

6. I advise the Coise [choice] of a Cabin on the second deck, the noise being tremendous on the upper deck; the cold being very great there also, the large window being hardly ever tight –

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Epilogue to the Diary of Hector William Pope Smith, added by his eldest son, James Hector Brookes-Smith, in 1940.

In reading my Father’s diary and in remembering things that happened up to and after his death, one can see what a very great tragedy it was to his young family of four boys and a girl that they should be orphans at such an early age. (There was another boy who died, aged about 2½ – 3 years).

Father was a true son of the North in his very careful choice of the country to which he intended to make his future home; his taking great pains to prepare himself for that work in a far and not much known country at that time was truly Scotch.

My Father’s brothers and sister were James, Alexander, and Mina. My brothers and myself have only seen Uncle James, as the others had died some years before we had returned from New Zealand to Scotland. However, when living at Banniskirk House, Halkirk, Caithness, we used to go to see our Grandmother, Mrs Smith, (she was a Miss Ross, I think) at Ormlie Lodge, Thurso, which means Thor’s (the War God’s) River. Olrig means “Son of Errich”.

From the Hill of Olrig behind Olrig House could be seen the Pentland Firth and the rocky isle of Hoy.

Father went to Marishal College, Aberdeen, and it must have been while in that town that he met the girl, Anne Jane who was to be his wife. They were married in the drawing-room of my Great-Aunt’s (Mrs Clerihew’s) house, 5 Union Place, Aberdeen. Their Honeymoon was spent in travelling to Switzerland, and they returned to Scotland to Newton House, not far from Elgin, where they lived till they sailed for New Zealand 4½ years later.

The family was then three sons, James (the writer of this memo.), Charles Alexander, Hector John, James being about three years old and Hector about six months, I believe.

As this was a long voyage, a black polled Angus cow named Lossie, named after the river of that name, was taken to give milk for the children during the voyage. This cow had a bull Calf which was named “Sir Robert” after our Father’s and Uncle’s friend, Sir Robert Sinclair. I cannot remember exactly where we lived before going to Aorangi, but I think it was in Napier. At Aorangi my brother Frank and my sister Mina were born, I believe. After a few years Aorangi became too small for us and a house was built near the site of Hawkville, but was burnt down just as the building was finished and we were going to move into it. My father then had Hawkville built, to which we moved; our dear Aunt Bella, who was always very much of an invalid, made the short journey from Aorangi on a big sledge drawn by bullocks. I can well remember Father marking out the route with great care and white pegs so that there should be as little roughness as possible for her going.

Another son was born at Hawkville, George Alexander. He died, I believe at Mrs. Beggs School, of diptheria at about 3 years. I was the first to go to Mrs. Beggs School, and soon after either Charlie or Hector came too. One evening at tea-time (Sept 1877), one of the girls came in and whispered to the others; they looked at my brother and myself. I felt a shock and said “Something has happened to our Family”. Our dear Mother had just died.

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Father was terribly broken-hearted at his loss, and with no interest in anything, I believe he went out on the Run, got wet, took no trouble about himself, fell ill, and after a short illness died at a house he had bought at Napier beach.

I have been told by those who knew them how much our parents were respected and liked, and how much their passing had been regretted. They were just the very kind of people the Colony of New Zealand wanted, upright, honest, hard-working, their one aim to do their best for their children and for their adopted country, to break in the rough new land, and it was very rough indeed in those days, to stock it with sheep and cattle, and above all to free it from its mortgage.

Then this stunning blow fell on the family. It was decided by our guardians that I, James, should go to school in England. Mr Hugh Duff (Kereru, Hawkes Bay) took me home via Napier, Auckland, San Francisco, across America, and to Liverpool and Aberdeen to Great Aunt Anne (Mrs Clerihew) about June or July 1878. I went to a small school at Banchory, Aberdeen.

In about 1880 my three brothers and sister returned to Scotland to Banniskirk House, Halkirk, about 1½ miles from Georgemas Junction, our Uncle James having chosen this place, a good big house, with large walled garden and plenty of rough shooting. We went to school at the College, Inverness, returning to Banniskirk for holidays.

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The following account was written by Jack Mackie, who was the last Manager for Mr. Hugh Duff, of Whakarara Station. Jack Mackie was the boy who came out with the Smith family in 1871. It was written for Mrs. G.H. Eaton, nee Annie K. Duff.


The Whakarara Run was originally taken up by Messrs. Robert & Alfred Price, but they never took possession, they sold out to Messrs. H.A. & A.R. Duff, and they put the first sheep on Whakarara Station in 1865/66. They bought them at Olrig Station, owned by Mr. H.W.P. Smith, and managed by Mr. Hector Ross Duff. It took them nearly a week to drive the 200 merinos from Olrig on to the run, the Poporangi Creek was bush and scrub to the water on both sides, and they had to break the scrub down so as to ride up the creek, and it took two days to drive the sheep up the creek from about a mile lower down than the present road crossing. Mr. Hector Duff and Mr. Hugh often told me of the hard work it was to make a track. After getting settled, Mr. Alick Duff went to Wairoa with Mr. Hector, and took up land leased at the time from the Maoris, and later bought.

When I first saw Whakarara in 1872, it was very rough, a few sheep tracks, and it took four of us then three days to muster the run, camping out for two nights under a flax bush with not even a coat, it was so warm, and each one boiling his own billy; being only sixteen, I thought it great fun, years after I thought it hard work.

William Simmons, commonly known as Big Bill on account of his size and build, was a fine man, and was first man to settle with a wife, but he was not the first man really, before him was Sam Coldwell, and other sawyers who built two whares, and Jean de Rigeur, a very bad-tempered man who could not get a man to stay with him as mate in a big contract to saw 40,000 feet of Totara for H.W.P. Smith for his new house (a beautiful house burnt as the Smiths were ready to go into it).

It was then that Riggir went to Hampden and saw Big Bill. It being Christmas, Bill was a bit merry, and Jack Riggir told him of the good thing he had sawing, and Bill agreed to go as mate, but he had promised his wife he would never go with Riggir as a mate; he had refused several times before, but Riggir caught Bill. Mrs. Simmons would not leave Tiko Kino [Tikokino] till Riggir had left, and it was near the end of 1872, when she went to the Bush. She was not the first woman as your father had a man, Phillips and his wife, a married couple who stayed till your father went home the first time, then he got MacEwan and his wife. Both MacEwan and Phillips and old Andrew McNally were all 65th Regiment and good men, especially Phillips.

Now for Kereru. James Lyon, a son of Mr. Lyon of Lyon and Blair (booksellers in Wellington) took up the Kereru Run, taking in all the land across Poporangi between your boundary out to Andrews’ Whare, his homestead was where Bill Williams lived. Then, where the Andersons lived some 2,000 acres were owned by Powdrells till 1870, when they sold to Messrs. William & Fred Nelson, later of Tomoana. They went home in 1872 leaving their cousin, Alfred Giblin to manage. When Wm. Nelson returned from home he sold the block to J. Lyon, and it then became the Poporangi Run. In 1875 Lyon sold to Messrs. Royce, Stead & Co.

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of Christchurch, and M.K. Miller of Napier joined the firm. Poporangi was too small, so they tried to buy Whakarara from Duff Bros. (£20,000 for Whakarara) and not being able to buy, they bought all the parts of Whakarara that your father did not think worth buying, such as Bald Hill and other running pieces of shingle, thereby trying to make your father sell, but he would not sell. He said he would fence all he had bought. Towards the end of 1876, Mr. John Anderson joined the owners of Poporangi, (he was a brother-in-law of Mr. Miller) by buying out Mr. Stead and Mr. Fuller, and later on Mr. Royce. Mr. Anderson brought 1,500 merinos (ewes) from his Otago property, and founded a good Merino Stud, for Mr. Anderson was a great judge of Merino sheep and a very fine man.

He was not long at Poporangi before he saw the folly of their fencing in the numbers of pieces your father had bought, so he and your father spent a long time trying to come to a give and take line of fence, that is how Whakarara is now in two blocks, and, on the whole, your father got the best of the deal, but the arrangement saved them a lot of money, had they fenced the land bought by your father it would have made Whakarara a lot of small paddocks, I forget how many blocks there were, but some were only 200 acres, and the largest block about 1,000 acres, and the roading would have cost a lot. M.K. Miller was the fool who bought the useless land to try to force your father’s hand. At that time, he was a very wealthy man, and thought the land boom (through which he coined money) would last for ever, but alas, there was a slump, and M.K.M. came out of it with nothing.

The Kereru run was owned by Messrs. J.N. Williams of Frimley, Hastings and Col. [Colonel] J.N. Herrick, and they also had the Whana Whana Run. Col. Herrick managed till he sold out after his wife died. He then took Forest Gate Run, near Onga Onga. The Kereru Run was managed by Allen M. Williams, a nephew of J.N. Williams. In Col. Herrick’s time it was known as Kereru, as he kept the Post Office. The mail was run from Maraekakaho twice a week, generally by a boy on horse back. He rode through Olrig over the mail track to the Whanakino creek and on to Herrick’s, returning next day. On one occasion, a Mr. Morseby, who was staying with Col. Herrick learning sheep-farming, and nearly every time the mail arrived, he opened the bag and sorted the letters, was on his way to Napier, and called in at Olrig to have lunch with Uncle Hector, the mail man arrived, and Morseby (I think that was his name, an English gentleman) knowing the English mail was in, and that there were letters for him, opened the mail bag in front of several men, took his letters out, tied the bag up and gave it to the mailman. He went on to Napier, and having to go to the Post Office, he told what he had done, and the next he knew was that he had to go to Court, and in the Supreme Court he was sentenced to two years for breaking the seal, which he often did twice a week. He was a very fine man and liked by all who knew him, so your Uncle Hector told me. The whole district and most of Napier got up a petition to get him off, but it was of no avail, he served his time, and then returned to England. I am sure in the old days many were guilty of the same offence of breaking the Queen’s Seal.

Now, to return to Kereru. M.K. Miller, who ran a Stock & Station business in Napier and H.B., found Kereru a gold mine, selling Kereru three times in three years, first from Williams & Herrick to a Canterbury man, who only held it one year. I stayed

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with him and his wife for three nights, but now I cannot remember his name – I fancy it was Overton, an old Canterbury family. He brought the dual gates for drafting sheep, and I saw it in use in his new yards put up at the foot of the Big Hill now owned, I believe, by Jack Hewitt. When I got home, I put two gates in the Olrig yards, and A. McLean, Manager of Maraekakaho, on seeing it used, put them in.

At that time, about 1875 or beginning of 1876, John Joshua came over from Australia looking for a run. He had a letter of credit for £100,000, and M.K. Miller got him to offer Mr. H.W.P. Smith that sum for the back half of his run, Mrs. Smith was very anxious for Mr. Smith to sell, but he would not, so M.K. Miller sold Joshua the Kereru and Whana Whana, and in less than two years M.K. Miller sold the Kereru to Arthur Harding, and Whana Whana to N.E. Beamish and G.E.G. Richardson. That ends Kereru.

You ask me about the Smith family. Well, I came out with Mr. Hector William Pope Smith in the “City of Auckland” in 1871, leaving Gravesend on 11th September, and reaching Auckland on 16th December. Stayed there nearly a fortnight, and left Auckland for Napier, arriving there on New Year’s Eve. Mr. & Mrs. Smith had three boys then, James Hector, about 5 years; Charles Barron, 3 years; called after Mrs. Smith’s brother; and Hector J., a baby in arms, about a year old. They had two boys and one girl born in Napier. One of the boys, George, died as a baby, and the girl, Wilhelmina is still alive; and Frank, the youngest is a lawyer. After Mr & Mrs. Smith died, all the children were sent home under the charge of the same nurse who came out with them, your father going home with them to look after them. James, Charlie & Hector returned to New Zealand after their education was finished; James first, and he went to Col. Herrick as a cadet, and when Charlie and Hector came out, the three of them went as cadets to Mr. Busby. On finishing their cadetship, James went home again and changed his name to Brookes-Smith as he married a Miss Brooke. He has never returned. Charlie and Hector went to Olrig, the lease of Messrs. James Watt and Robert Farmer having run out. They had a good manager, a Mr. Clark, who left to go to S. Africa [South Africa]. They then had two or three managers till the Government took about half the run for Settlement, and Charlie and Hector divided the remainder.

After living in Napier for three months, Mr. Smith came up to Olrig, and as his new house was ready for occupation, we were to spend a week at Aorangi (where Henry Simmons lives). The new house was burnt, and we stayed on at Aorangi for over six months. The timber for the new house was cut in the new saw-mills at Hampden, as it would have taken too long to get new timber sawn in a pit in the Kereru bush. The Smiths did not enjoy their new house very long. Mrs. Smith died in September 1876, and Mr. Smith in March 1877.

H.W.P. Smith was first cousin to the Duffs, and Hector Duff was Manager for Mr. Smith up to 1873, when he and Mr. Smith had a bit of trouble over a Mr. Neale, who came out in the “City of Auckland” with us. He went to the Bay of Islands as a cadet to a Nick Hunt, with whom he could not get on. He wrote to me, telling me, and I showed the letter to Mr. Smith, and he wrote to him, telling him to come to Olrig, and without consulting Hector Duff, Neale was sent to Olrig. Hector Duff, of course, got his back up, and left straight away, and joined Alick Duff in Wairoa.

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Charlie Smith married Mildred Nelson, and they had one boy, Ned, who has, I believe taken the name of Nelson-Smith. Hector Smith married Constance Nelson (it was Gertrude), sister of Mildred, and the family, I think, is a boy and two girls. One of the girls is married, and the other is a nurse in Palmerston North. The boy is a student at Massey College.

Frank Smith, the youngest boy, gave up the name of Smith many years ago, and is now Clerihew. There were two old ladies Clerihew, cousins or aunts of Mr. Smith, who paid Smiths a visit when they had Newton House in Alves, and who mothered Frank when he was too young to go to school. Mina Smith, the fourth child, was educated in Inverness, and married a Dr. Fraser, and is probably there now.

I am sorry I can’t give you any information about the Maori fort on Whakarara Station. The Duffs told me Hapuka was born there, and pointing to a pole, said it was in front of his whare. Mr. Smith bought a big lot of Olrig, but Aorangi he bought from Edmund Tuke, and we lived in his old house, and he bought the block from the Whanakino to where the Malcolm Walkers lived, from Johnny Gorge and his sons, an Auckland family.

Lester Masters writes :”In 1886, during Mr. Jack Mackie’s time as manager of Whakarara, after much of the back country had been cleared of it’s original vegetation by fire, a gang of 8 men including 2 packmen and a cook were employed in sowing down in English grasses, the burnt over areas. In some of the more inaccessable places the seed was transported across gorges in half sack lots on a wire. An excellent strike resulted from that sowing. However, although fire had assisted for the time being in adding to the carrying capacity of the Station, it proved itself, in the long run, to be much more of an enemy than friend to the owners of Whakarara. The lighting in the back-country by the Station hands of scrub and fern fires that as often as not got out of control, and the baring of pastures on steep hill faces by rabbits that made their first appearance on the Station in 1886, were probably the two main factors in causing large areas to revert to scrub, and in bringing about much of the havoc that has since been wrought by wind and water erosion. About 1910 the beautiful old homestead of 12 rooms and wide verandahs, to which an ancient grape vine gave an added air of graciousness, constructed of heart, pit-sawn and hand dressed timbers which had been obtained from the homestead bush, was totally destroyed by fire. Some months later, both the 8 stand shearing shed and men’s quarters were also destroyed by fire. A new homestead, the present one, constructed of timber obtained from the nearby bush in which Smith Bros. of Olrig Station had installed a sawmill, was erected on the old site and in the same spacious old colonial style with the added attraction of a grand hall with a dance floor, and a new shearing shed and men’s quarters some distance from their original site.”

The 1931 Napier Earthquake damaged this homestead, and isolated the property for a period. Hugh’s son was killed in World War 1, but after the Earthquake his daughter Annie K. Eaton and husband returned to the Station, after living in India. In 1950 most of the land was bought by the Government for Forestry. At the final muster only 3,000 sheep and 100 cattle were yarded;

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in its hey-day, 12,000 sheep and 500 cattle were carried. The size of the run was then about 10,000 acres. The Eatons continued to farm the homestead block of 760 acres, until 1957; when they sold out to D.H. Sherning, and retired to Havelock North. They both died about 1970. Both their sons were Doctors, Mrs. Eaton said they had too many brains to be farmers !

Duff family relationship to H.W.P.S.

There is a Memorial Plaque to the Duff family in the Nigg Church, near Tain, Scotland. It is of interest to the Smith family, as Hugh Duff (d. 1847) married Johanna Ross (d. 1880), whom. H.W.P. visited in 1865; and her sister married Smith of Olrig. H.W.P.S. was therefore a first cousin to Hugh, Hector and Alick Duff, all mentioned in the diary.

Hugh, of Kereru, escorted James back to Scotland, after the death of his father in 1877. Hugh died at Edderton in 1895.

Hector (d. 1896), who later farmed at Clydebank, Wairoa, was Olrig’s First Manager : 1859 – 1873; and Alexander (d. 1912) accompanied H.W.P. on the 1859 Journey to Canterbury, and also worked at Olrig, before moving to Wairoa, where he was later joined by his brother Hector.

Two other brothers died overseas : Walter, a Coffee Planter, died at Kandy, Ceylon in 1865, and Robert, a Merchant, at San Francisco in 1903. John was a Surgeon Major Royal Artillery (d. 1874), while William (Diary p.187) remained on the family farm and died at Edderton in 1901.

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Account written by C.E.N. Smith about 1950.

It was on the 29th. May 1858 that Mr. H.W.P. Smith of Olrig, Caithness, Scotland, then 21 years of age, left Gravesend, England, on the 800 ton sailing ship “Mary Ann”, to seek land in New Zealand. On the 29th. September 1858 he arrived in Auckland. After finding land there expensive and generally unsuitable, he came by ship to Napier, arriving there on Nov. 12th. 1858. The idea of obtaining land in Hawkes Bay appealed to him, and he remained in the district for about 4 months, but before making a final choice, he decided to see some land in the South Island; where there were no “Maori Troubles”.!

He left Napier on horseback with his cousin Alec Duff, and rode to Wellington via the Wairarapa and Hutt Valley; arriving there in 4½ days. A fortnight later they took a Steamer to Lyttleton, and continued on down south. On one occasion he was nearly drowned in the Rangitata River. He finally reached a farm in the McKenzie Country, but here he found that although the land was suitable, sheep were very expensive – 32/- a head, and the Climate terribly severe. He then decided to retrace his steps, and return to Napier as quickly as possible, and try and buy some land in the district. After many efforts he finally bought 14,000 acres around Mangatahi district, from Mr. Dommett, then Commissioner of Crown Lands. About 3 years later, he bought an adjoining run of 15,000 acres from Hon. A.G. Tollemache. A great deal of the land was covered in Scrub and Fern, but Mr. Smith erected a house and woolshed in 1860, near the site of the present home of Mr. J. Graham, at Netherby. Mr. Smith farmed the property successfully and returned to Scotland for a trip. He married in 1867, and lived in Scotland till 1871, when Mr. Smith, his wife and 3 children, left on the “City of Auckland” for N.Z.

The name of the farm was then “Aorangi”, and later changed to “Olrig”, after his home in Scotland.

Mr. Smith then set about building a large house for the family; after having built a small house at Waitangi; where Mr. Leicester Simmons now lives. About 1872 he decided to build his new house, where the Tait family now lives at Glenelg. Mr. Smith’s house was then known as “Olrig House”. Just as he was about to move into it in 1872, it was burned to the ground. (The fire was on Thursday 10th. April 1873.), and an entirely new house had to be built about 1873.

Mr. & Mrs. H.W.P. Smith both died about 1878, leaving 4 sons and one daughter, Mrs. Fraser, now living in Scotland. The four sons were James, Charles (father of the present owner of Olrig Station, C.E. Nelson Smith.), Hector, Mr. Hector Smith now lives at Ormlie, 7 miles from Napier, and James. The property of about 29,000 acres was divided equally amongst the 4 brothers and left in the hands of trustees until they came of age. In 1907 at the time of the Seddon Government, half Olrig Station was broken up for closer settlement, consisting of approx. 14,000 acres around Mangatahi, as the centre of it. The land was taken from Messrs. James and Frank Smith, the two brothers both having left N.Z., and were living in England.

Mr. Charles A. Smith, 2nd. son of Mr. H.W.P. Smith, in 1894 married Miss Mildred Nelson, daughter of the late William Nelson

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of Waikoko. There was one son born in 1898, C.E. Nelson Smith, the present owner of Olrig Station. Mrs. C.A. Smith died shortly afterwards, and Mr. C.A. Smith died in 1908. Olrig House 3 miles from Maraekakaho, was then sold.

The Olrig Station buildings, including a large woolshed with 20 stands, were situated near where Mr. J. Graham, Netherby, Mangatahi, now lives. In fact his house used to be the Manager’s house up till 1907.

When the farmlands round Mangatahi were cut up in 1907, new buildings were erected 4½ miles up the road to Kereru, where Olrig Station is now situated. This road, incidentally, was a direct road front Mangatahi to Kereru – the previous route to Kereru was via Maraekakaho and Salisbury.

Farming operations were now carried on as a partnership, between Mr. C.A. Smith and Mr. H.J. Smith. In Feb 1908, Mr. C.A. Smith, who lived at Olrig House (now known as Glenelg) died, but the partnership with Mr. H.J. Smith was carried on by the Trustees of the late C.A. Smith.

In about 1919 approx. 2,000 acres of that portion of Olrig Station, which was administered by the trustees of the late C.A. Smith, was sold to 4 Returned Soldiers: Messrs. A.E. Byrne, W.A. White, R.P. Kaye, and C.G. Averill.

In about 1922 the partnership was dissolved, chiefly owing to the heavy inroads of the Graduated Land Tax. Mr. H.J. Smith’s portion of Olrig, was then called Whanakino Station.

In 1924, Mr C.E. Nelson Smith married. Miss E. Mayne, a daughter of the Rev. Dean Mayne of Napier, and in 1928 Mr. C.E. Nelson Smith became the owner of Olrig Station, under the provision of his father’s will. Mr. & Mrs. C.E. Nelson Smith had two daughters, Miss J.E.M. Smith and Miss P.E.N. Smith.

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Other surnames in this diary –
Canning, Clark, Domett, Fuller, MacEwan, Manson, McLeod, Moresby, Neale, Phillips, Royce, Stead, Tait, Tanner, Waters


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